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Definition of Irrelevance result
The Modigliani and Miller theorem that a firm's capital structure is irrelevant to the firm's
Theory that under ideal conditions, the value of the firm is unaffected by dividend policy.
The value of a firm is unaffected by its capital structure.
benchmarking in which an end product or service is examined; the focus is on product/service specifications and performance results
Earnings after removing the effects of nonrecurring or nonoperating items.
A promise to sell an asset before the seller has lined up purchase of the asset. This
An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
Information that is known to some people but not to other people.
A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.
A lack of equivalence between two things, such as the unequal tax treatment of interest expense
A subcommittee of a company's board of directors assigned the responsibility
An account receivable that cannot be collected.
The amount of accounts receivable that is not expected to be collected.
Refers to accounts receivable from credit sales to customers
A committee formed in response to SEC chairman Arthur Levitt's initiative to improve the financial
The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.
A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
Payment of cash by the firm to its shareholders.
Cash flow per common share
Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
A privately owned, profit-seeking firm that accepts deposits and makes loans.
Commercial Business Loan (Credit Insurance)
An agreement between a creditor and a borrower, where the creditor has loaned an amount to the borrower for business purposes.
Demand for payment.
A loan made on real estate collateral, other than a residential property, in which a mortgage is given to secure payment of principal and interest.
Short-term unsecured promissory notes issued by a corporation. The maturity of
Short-term unsecured notes issued by firms.
The risk that a foreign debtor will be unable to pay its debts because of business events,
The fee paid to a broker to execute a trade, based on number of shares, bonds, options, and/or
A broker on the floor of an exchange acts as agent for a particular brokerage house and
A firm which buys and sells future contracts for customer accounts. Related: futures
A trader is said to have a commitment when he assumes the obligation to accept or make
A fee paid to a commercial bank in return for its legal commitment to lend funds that have
a cost related either to the long-term investment
Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee
The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)
The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity
A commodity is food, metal, or another physical substance that investors buy or sell, usually via
The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages
common body of knowledge (CBK)
the minimum set of knowledge needed by a person to function effectively in a particular field
An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital
Are equity instruments that take no security against assets, have no fixed terms of repayment and pay no fixed dividends.
common-size balance sheet
Balance sheet that presents items as a percentage of total assets.
common-size income statement
Income statement that presents items as a percentage of revenues.
These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. Common shares let an
Shares of ownership sold to the public.
A financial security that represents an ownership claim on the
Ownership shares in a publicly held corporation.
That part of the capital stock of a corporation that carries voting rights and represents
Common stock equivalent
A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned
Common stock market
The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.
Common stock/other equity
Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
Common stock ratios
Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
a company committee comprised mainly of members of the board of directors; is responsible
constant-growth dividend discount model
Version of the dividend discount model in which dividends grow at a constant rate.
An arrangement in which the money manager pursues an active bond portfolio
Cost of Common Stock
The rate of return required by the investors in the common stock of
Cost of Debt
The cost of debt (bonds, loans, etc.) that a company is charged for
Cumulative dividend feature
A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid
Borrowings from financiers.
Funds owed to another entity.
Ability to borrow. The amount a firm can borrow up to the point where the firm value no
An assessment of ability and willingness to repay a loan from anticipated future cash flow or other sources.
Debt (Credit Insurance)
Money, goods or services that someone is obligated to pay someone else in accordance with an expressed or implied agreement. debt may or may not be secured.
The amount of borrowing that leasing displaces. Firms that do a lot of leasing will be
Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
A comparison of debt to equity in a company's capital structure.
Raising loan capital through the creation of debt by issuing a form of paper evidencing amounts owed and payable on specified dates or on demand.
An asset requiring fixed dollar payments, such as a government or corporate bond.
Any financial asset corresponding to a debt, such as a bond or a treasury bill.
The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to incur additional indebtedness.
The market for trading debt instruments.
Total debt divided by total assets.
The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
Reducing the principal and/or interest payments on LDC loans.
IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
Interest payment plus repayments of principal to creditors, that is, retirement of debt.
Debt-service coverage ratio
Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
Debt service parity approach
An analysis wherein the alternatives under consideration will provide the firm
A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
A widely used financial statement ratio to assess the
Debtor in possession
A firm that is continuing to operate under Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.
New debt obtained by a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.
Sales to customers who have bought goods or services on credit but who have not yet paid their debt.
Discounted dividend model (DDM)
A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
A dividend is a portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders. A stock
A payment a company makes to stockholders. Earnings before income tax. The profit a company made
The payment of after-tax profits to shareholders as their share of the profits of the business for an accounting period.
A payment made to shareholders that is proportional to the number of shares
Periodic cash distribution from the firm to its shareholders.
As the term dividend relates to a corporation's earnings, a dividend is an amount paid per share from a corporation's after tax profits. Depending on the type of share, it may or may not have the right to earn any dividends and corporations may reduce or even suspend dividend payments if they are not doing well. Some dividends are paid in the form of additional shares of the corporation. dividends paid by Canadian corporations qualify for the dividend tax credit and are taxed at lower rates than other income.
Unlike dividends which are paid to company shareholders, participating insurance policy dividends are not based on the company's overall profits. Rather, they are determined by grouping policies by type and country of issue and looking at how each class contributes to the company's earnings and surplus.
With respect to a project financing, an arrangement under which the sponsors of a project
A group of shareholders who prefer that the firm follow a particular dividend policy. For
dividend discount model
Computation of today’s stock price which states that share value equals the present value of all expected future dividends.
Dividend discount model (DDM)
A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on the
dividend growth method
a method of computing the cost
Dividend growth model
A model wherein dividends are assumed to be at a constant rate in perpetuity.
Income that a company receives in the form of dividends on stock in other companies that it holds.
A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to pay cash dividends.
Dividend payout ratio
Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.
dividend payout ratio
Computed by dividing cash dividends for the year
dividend payout ratio
Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.
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