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This site contains comprehensive definitions for a wide range of terms that cover topics such as financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit...

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Monthly Financial Term Picks:

CARs (cumulative abnormal returns)

a measure used in academic finance articles to measure the excess returns an investor would have received over a particular time period if he or she were invested in a particular stock.
This is typically used in control and takeover studies, where stockholders are paid a premium for being taken over. Starting some time period before the takeover (often five days before the first announced bid, but sometimes a longer period), the researchers calculate the actual daily stock returns for the target firm and subtract out the expected market returns (usually calculated using the firm’s beta and applying it to overall market movements during the time period under observation).
The excess actual return over the capital asset pricing model-determined expected return market is called an ‘‘abnormal return.’’ The cumulation of the daily abnormal returns over the time period under observation is the CAR. The term CAR(-5, 0) means the CAR calculated from five days before the
announcement to the day of announcement. The CAR(-1, 0) is a control premium, although Mergerstat generally uses the stock price five days before announcement rather than one day before announcement as the denominator in its control premium calculation. However, the CAR for any period other than (-1, 0) is not mathematically equivalent to a control premium.


Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.


Except for opinion

An auditor's opinion reflecting the fact that the auditor was unable to audit certain areas
of the company's operations because of restrictions imposed by management or other conditions beyond the
auditor's control.


Fiscal agency agreement

An alternative to a bond trust deed. Unlike the trustee, the fiscal agent acts as an
agent of the borrower.


Range forward

A forward exchange rate contract that places upper and lower bounds on the cost of foreign exchange.


Reward-to-volatility ratio

Ratio of excess return to portfolio standard deviation.



Swap reversal

An interest rate swap designed to end a counterparty's role in another interest rate swap,
accomplished by counterbalancing the original swap in maturity, reference rate, and notional amount.


quick ratio

See acid test ratio.


Debt Ratio

The percentage of debt that is used in the total capitalization of a
company. It is calculated by dividing the total book value of the
debt by the book value of all assets.


indirect cost

a cost that cannot be traced explicitly to a particular
cost object; a common cost


Gamma

The rate of change of delta for a derivative security relative to the
price of the underlying asset; i.e., the second derivative of the option price
relative to the security price.


Fractional Reserve Banking

A banking system in which banks hold only a fraction of their outstanding deposits in cash or on deposit with the central bank.


State Disability Tax

A tax charged by selected states to maintain a disability insurance
fund, from which payments are made to employees who are unable to
work due to illness or injury.


Work-in-process

Any items being converted into finished goods or released from
the warehouse in anticipation of beginning the conversion process.


bank draft

A guaranteed form of payment which is issued in amounts over $5,000.


 

 

 

 

 



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