Financial Terms
Subject to opinion

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Definition of Subject to opinion

Subject To Opinion Image 1

Subject to opinion

An auditor's opinion reflecting acceptance of a company's financial statements subject to
pervasive uncertainty that cannot be adequately measured, such as information relating to the value of
inventories, reserves for losses, or other matters subject to judgment.

Related Terms:

Clean opinion

An auditor's opinion reflecting an unqualified acceptance of a company's financial statements.

Disclaimer of opinion

An auditor's statement disclaiming any opinion regarding the company's financial

Except for opinion

An auditor's opinion reflecting the fact that the auditor was unable to audit certain areas
of the company's operations because of restrictions imposed by management or other conditions beyond the
auditor's control.

Opinion shopping

A practice prohibited by the SEC which involves attempts by a corporation to obtain
reporting objectives by following questionable accounting principles with the help of a pliable auditor willing
to go along with the desired treatment.


Refers to a bid or offer that cannot be executed without confirmation from the customer.

Subjective probabilities

Probabilities that are determined subjectively (for example, on the basis of
judgement rather than using statistical sampling).

Clean price

Bond price excluding accrued interest.

Subject To Opinion Image 1

Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.

Clean Float

A flexible exchange rate system in which the government does not intervene.

NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

Asymmetric information

information that is known to some people but not to other people.

Auditor's report

A section of an annual report containing the auditor's opinion about the veracity of the
financial statements.

Banker's acceptance

A short-term credit investment created by a non-financial firm and guaranteed by a
bank as to payment. acceptances are traded at discounts from face value in the secondary market. These
instruments have been a popular investment for money market funds. They are commonly used in
international transactions.

Blue-chip company

Large and creditworthy company.

Subject To Opinion Image 1

Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.

Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

Carrying value

Book value.

Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

Changes in Financial Position

Sources of funds internally provided from operations that alter a company's
cash flow position: depreciation, deferred taxes, other sources, and capital expenditures.

Common stock/other equity

value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.

Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk

Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.

Convention statement

An annual statement filed by a life insurance company in each state where it does
business in compliance with that state's regulations. The statement and supporting documents show, among
other things, the assets, liabilities, and surplus of the reporting company.

Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.

Subject To Opinion Image 2

Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.

Corporate financial planning

financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.

Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.

Country financial risk

The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt.

Depository Trust Company (DTC)

DTC is a user-owned securities depository which accepts deposits of
eligible securities for custody, executes book-entry deliveries and records book-entry pledges of securities in
its custody, and provides for withdrawals of securities from its custody.

Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.

Eligible bankers' acceptances

In the BA market, an acceptance may be referred to as eligible because it is
acceptable by the Fed as collateral at the discount window and/or because the accepting bank can sell it
without incurring a reserve requirement.

Except for opinion

An auditor's opinion reflecting the fact that the auditor was unable to audit certain areas
of the company's operations because of restrictions imposed by management or other conditions beyond the
auditor's control.

Excess reserves

any excess of actual reserves above required reserves.

Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money

Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.

Face value

See: Par value.

Financial analysts

Also called securities analysts and investment analysts, professionals who analyze
financial statements, interview corporate executives, and attend trade shows, in order to write reports
recommending either purchasing, selling, or holding various stocks.

Financial assets

Claims on real assets.

Financial control

The management of a firm's costs and expenses in order to control them in relation to
budgeted amounts.

Financial distress

Events preceding and including bankruptcy, such as violation of loan contracts.

Financial distress costs

Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
implied costs associated with impaired ability to do business (indirect costs).

Financial engineering

Combining or dividing existing instruments to create new financial products.

Financial future

A contract entered into now that provides for the delivery of a specified asset in exchange
for the selling price at some specified future date.

Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or

Financial lease

Long-term, non-cancelable lease.

Financial leverage

Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. financial leverage is measured by
the ratio of debt to debt plus equity.

Financial leverage clientele

A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
a particular financial leverage policy.

Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.

Financial market

An organized institutional structure or mechanism for creating and exchanging financial assets.

Financial objectives

Objectives of a financial nature that the firm will strive to accomplish during the period
covered by its financial plan.

Financial plan

A financial blueprint for the financial future of a firm.

Financial planning

The process of evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. It
includes attempting to make optimal decisions, projecting the consequences of these decisions for the firm in
the form of a financial plan, and then comparing future performance against that plan.

Financial press

That portion of the media devoted to reporting financial news.

Financial ratio

The result of dividing one financial statement item by another. Ratios help analysts interpret
financial statements by focussing on specific relationships.

Financial risk

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations.
Also referred to as the additional risk that a firm's stockholder bears when the firm utilizes debt and equity.

Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

Free reserves

Excess reserves minus member bank borrowings at the Fed.

Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

Holding company

A corporation that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and
operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.

Income statement (statement of operations)

A statement showing the revenues, expenses, and income (the
difference between revenues and expenses) of a corporation over some period of time.

Inflation uncertainty

The fact that future inflation rates are not known. It is a possible contributing factor to
the makeup of the term structure of interest rates.

Information asymmetry

A situation involving information that is known to some, but not all, participants.

Information Coefficient (IC)

The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.

Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.

Information services

Organizations that furnish investment and other types of information, such as
information that helps a firm monitor its cash position.

Information-content effect

The rise in the stock price following the dividend signal.

Informational efficiency

The speed and accuracy with which prices reflect new information.

Informationless trades

Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.

Information-motivated trades

Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
information not currently reflected in the stock's price.

Insider information

Relevant information about a company that has not yet been made public. It is illegal for
holders of this information to make trades based on it, however received.

Intercompany loan

Loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation.

Intercompany transaction

Transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation.

Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.

Investment value

Related:straight value.

Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
as well as futures-style options are traded.

Long-term financial plan

financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.

London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.

Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.

Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

Maturity value

Related: par value.

Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.

Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.

Net operating losses

losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.

Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.

Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.

Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.

Non-financial services

Include such things as freight, insurance, passenger services, and travel.

Notes to the financial statements

A detailed set of notes immediately following the financial statements in
an annual report that explain and expand on the information in the financial statements.

Official reserves

Holdings of gold and foreign currencies by official monetary institutions.

Official statement

A statement published by an issuer of a new municipal security describing itself and the issue

Opinion shopping

A practice prohibited by the SEC which involves attempts by a corporation to obtain
reporting objectives by following questionable accounting principles with the help of a pliable auditor willing
to go along with the desired treatment.

Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.

Other capital

In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital
transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It
is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from
country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most non-negotiable instruments of a
year or more like bank loans and mortgages. other short-term capital includes financial assets of less than a
year such as currency, deposits, and bills.

Other current assets

value of non-cash assets, including prepaid expenses and accounts receivable, due
within 1 year.

Other long term liabilities

value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.







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