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NPV (net present value of cash flows)

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Definition of NPV (net present value of cash flows)

NPV (net Present Value Of Cash Flows) Image 1

NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.



Related Terms:

PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .


Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.


Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.


Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.


Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).



Carrying value

Book value.


Cash

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually
includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. cash
equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.


NPV (net Present Value Of Cash Flows) Image 2

Cash budget

A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
expected cash and loan balances.


Cash and carry

Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed
with a loan or repo.


Cash and equivalents

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a
company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's
Acceptances. cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.


Cash commodity

The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.


Cash conversion cycle

The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash
from accounts receivable.


Cash cow

A company that pays out all earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or
division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow.


Cash cycle

In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital
management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.


Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.


Cash delivery

The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but
settlement according to the cash value of the asset.


Cash discount

An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
period, such as ten days.


Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in
addition to the dividend.



Cash equivalent

A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial
equivalent of cash.


Cash flow

In investments, it represents earnings before depreciation , amortization and non-cash charges.
Sometimes called cash earnings. cash flow from operations (called funds from operations ) by real estate and
other investment trusts is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.


Cash flow after interest and taxes

net income plus depreciation.


Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.


Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.


Cash flow matching

Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in
which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the
last liability to assure all required cash flows.


Cash flow per common share

cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.


Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.


Cash-flow break-even point

The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing
or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.


Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.



Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.


Cash offer

A public equity issue that is sold to all interested investors.


Cash ratio

The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.


Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.


Cash transaction

A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.


Cash-equivalent items

Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality
investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.


Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.


Cashout

Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.


Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.


Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.


Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Future cash flows multiplied by discount factors to obtain present values.


Discretionary cash flow

cash flow that is available after the funding of all positive npv capital investment
projects; it is available for paying cash dividends, repurchasing common stock, retiring debt, and so on.


Equivalent annual cash flow

Annuity with the same net present value as the company's proposed investment.


European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.


Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.


Expected future cash flows

Projected future cash flows associated with an asset of decision.


Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.


Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.


Exposure netting

Offsetting exposures in one currency with exposures in the same or another currency,
where exchange rates are expected to move in such a way that losses or gains on the first exposed position
should be offset by gains or losses on the second currency exposure.


Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.


Face value

See: Par value.


Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.


Free cash flows

cash not required for operations or for reinvestment. Often defined as earnings before
interest (often obtained from operating income line on the income statement) less capital expenditures less the
change in working capital.


Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.


General cash offer

A public offering made to investors at large.


Incremental cash flows

Difference between the firm's cash flows with and without a project.


International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment
problems.


International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.


Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.


Investment value

Related:straight value.


Ledger cash

A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called book cash.


Liquidation value

net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.


Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.


Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.


Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.


Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.


Maturity value

Related: par value.


Monetary gold

Gold held by governmental authorities as a financial asset.


Monetary policy

Actions taken by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to influence the
money supply or interest rates.


Monetary / non-monetary method

Under this translation method, monetary items (e.g. cash, accounts
payable and receivable, and long-term debt) are translated at the current rate while non-monetary items (e.g.
inventory, fixed assets, and long-term investments) are translated at historical rates.


Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.


Net advantage of refunding

The net present value of the savings from a refunding.


Net advantage to leasing

The net present value of entering into a lease financing arrangement rather than
borrowing the necessary funds and buying the asset.


Net advantage to merging

The difference in total post- and pre-merger market value minus the cost of the merger.


Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.


Net assets

The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized longterm
liabilities on the other hand.


Net benefit to leverage factor

A linear approximation of a factor, T*, that enables one to operationalize the
total impact of leverage on firm value in the capital market imperfections view of capital structure.


Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.


Net cash balance

Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.


Net change

This is the difference between a day's last trade and the previous day's last trade.


Net errors and omissions

In balance of payments accounting, net errors and omissions record the statistical
discrepancies that arise in gathering balance of payments data.


Net financing cost

Also called the cost of carry or, simply, carry, the difference between the cost of financing
the purchase of an asset and the asset's cash yield. Positive carry means that the yield earned is greater than
the financing cost; negative carry means that the financing cost exceeds the yield earned.


Net float

Sum of disbursement float and collection float.


Net income

The company's total earnings, reflecting revenues adjusted for costs of doing business,
depreciation, interest, taxes and other expenses.


Net investment

Gross, or total, investment minus depreciation.


Net lease

A lease arrangement under which the lessee is responsible for all property taxes, maintenance
expenses, insurance, and other costs associated with keeping the asset in good working condition.


Net operating losses

Losses that a firm can take advantage of to reduce taxes.


Net operating margin

The ratio of net operating income to net sales.


Net period

The period of time between the end of the discount period and the date payment is due.


Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.


Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.


Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of npvs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.


Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive npv. Projects with negative npvs
should be rejected.


Net profit margin

net income divided by sales; the amount of each sales dollar left over after all expenses
have been paid.


Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.


Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.


Net worth

Common stockholders' equity which consists of common stock, surplus, and retained earnings.


Netting

Reducing transfers of funds between subsidiaries or separate companies to a net amount.


Netting out

To get or bring in as a net; to clear as profit.


Nominal cash flow

A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received or paid out are given.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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