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Definition of Immunization

Immunization Image 1

Immunization

The construction of an asset and a liability that are subject to offsetting changes in value.



Related Terms:

Contingent immunization

An arrangement in which the money manager pursues an active bond portfolio
strategy until an adverse investment experience drives the then-available potential return down to the safetynet
level. When that point is reached, the money manager is obligated to pursue an immunization strategy to
lock in the safety-net level return.


Immunization strategy

A bond portfolio strategy whose goal is to eliminate the portfolio's risk against a
general change in the rate of interest through the use of duration.


Multiperiod immunization

A portfolio strategy in which a portfolio is created that will be capable of
satisfying more than one predetermined future liability regardless if interest rates change.


Cash flow matching

Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in
which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the
last liability to assure all required cash flows.


Combination matching

Also called horizon matching, a variation of multiperiod immunization and cash
flow matching in which a portfolio is created that is always duration matched and also cash-matched in the
first few years.



Dollar safety margin

The dollar equivalent of the safety cushion for a portfolio in a contingent immunization
strategy.


Safety cushion

In a contingent immunization strategy, the difference between the initially available
immunization level and the safety-net return.


Immunization Image 2

Safety-net return

The minimum available return that will trigger an immunization strategy in a contingent
immunization strategy.


Active portfolio strategy

A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy


Barbell strategy

A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
at two extremes.


Bullet strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
concentrated at one point on the yield curve.


Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.


Combination strategy

A strategy in which a put and with the same strike price and expiration are either both
bought or both sold. Related: Straddle


compensation strategy

a foundation for the compensation plan that addresses the role compensation should play in the organization


confrontation strategy

an organizational strategy in which company management decides to confront, rather than avoid, competition; an organizational strategy in which company management still attempts to differentiate company
products through new features or to develop a price
leadership position by dropping prices, even though management
recognizes that competitors will rapidly bring out
similar products and match price changes; an organizational
strategy in which company management identifies
and exploits current opportunities for competitive advantage
in recognition of the fact that those opportunities will
soon be eliminated


Contingent Beneficiary

This is the person designated to receive the death benefit of a life insurance policy if the primary beneficiary dies before the life insured. This is a consideration when husband and wife make each other the beneficiary of their coverage. Should they both die in the same car accident or plane crash, the death benefits would go to each others estate and creditor claims could be made against them. Particularly if minor children could be survivors, then a trustee contingent beneficiary should be named.


Immunization Image 1

Contingent claim

A claim that can be made only if one or more specified outcomes occur.


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.



Contingent Liability

An obligation that is dependent on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of
one or more future events to confirm the existence of an obligation, the amount owed, the payee,
or the date payable.


Contingent Owner

This is the person designated to become the new owner of a life insurance policy if the original owner dies before the life insured.


contingent pay

compensation that is dependent on the
achievement of some performance objective


Contingent pension liability

Under ERISA, the firm is liable to the plan participants for up to 39% of the net
worth of the firm.


cost leadership strategy

a plan to achieve the position in a
competitive environment of being the low cost producer of
a product or provider of a service; it provides one method
of avoiding competition


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Dedication strategy

Refers to multi-period cash flow matching.


differentiation strategy

a technique for avoiding competition by distinguishing a product or service from that of competitors through adding sufficient value (including quality and/or features) that customers are willing to pay
a higher price than that charged by competitors


Import-substitution development strategy

A development strategy followed by many Latin American
countries and other LDCs that emphasized import substitution - accomplished through protectionism - as the
route to economic growth.


Immunization Image 2

Ladder strategy

A bond portfolio strategy in which the portfolio is constructed to have approximately equal
amounts invested in every maturity within a given range.



Overlay strategy

A strategy of using futures for asset allocation by pension sponsors to avoid disrupting the
activities of money managers.


Passive investment strategy

See: passive management.


Passive portfolio strategy

A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on
diversification to match the performance of some market index. A passive strategy assumes that the
marketplace will reflect all available information in the price paid for securities, and therefore, does not
attempt to find mispriced securities. Related: active portfolio strategy


Protective put buying strategy

A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is
held in a portfolio. Related: Hedge option strategies


Randomized strategy

A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a random element that is
designed to reduce the information content of the decision-maker's observed choices.


Spread strategy

A strategy that involves a position in one or more options so that the cost of buying an
option is funded entirely or in part by selling another option in the same underlying. Also called spreading.


Stock replacement strategy

A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, employed when the futures
contract is expensive based on its theoretical price, involving a swap between the futures, treasury bills
portfolio and a stock portfolio.


strategy

the link between an organization’s goals and objectives
and the activities actually conducted by the organization


Structured portfolio strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is designed to achieve the performance of some
predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.


Dollar safety margin

The dollar equivalent of the safety cushion for a portfolio in a contingent immunization
strategy.


Safety cushion

In a contingent immunization strategy, the difference between the initially available
immunization level and the safety-net return.


Safety-net return

The minimum available return that will trigger an immunization strategy in a contingent
immunization strategy.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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