Financial Terms
Dollar safety margin

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Definition of Dollar safety margin

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Dollar safety margin

The dollar equivalent of the safety cushion for a portfolio in a contingent immunization

Related Terms:

After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.

Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.

Buy on margin

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.

Constant dollar accounting

A method for restating financial statements by reducing or
increasing reported revenues and expenses by changes in the consumer price index,
thereby achieving greater comparability between accounting periods.

Constant dollars

See real dollars.

Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act

A federal Act requiring federal contractors to pay overtime for hours worked exceeding 40 per week.

Contribution margin

The difference between variable revenue and variable cost.

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contribution margin

An intermediate measure of profit equal to sales revenue
minus cost-of-goods-sold expense and minus variable operating
expenses—but before fixed operating expenses are deducted. Profit at
this point contributes toward covering fixed operating expenses and
toward interest and income tax expenses. The breakeven point is the
sales volume at which contribution margin just equals total fixed

contribution margin

the difference between selling price and
variable cost per unit or in total for the level of activity; it
indicates the amount of each revenue dollar remaining
after variable costs have been covered and going toward
the coverage of fixed costs and the generation of profits

Contribution margin

The margin that results when variable production costs are subtracted
from revenue. It is most useful for making incremental pricing decisions
where a company must cover its variable costs, though perhaps not all of its fixed

contribution margin ratio

the proportion of each revenue dollar remaining after variable costs have been covered;
computed as contribution margin divided by sales

Current Dollars

A variable like GDP is measured in current dollars if each year's value is measured in prices prevailing during that year. In contrast, when measured in real or constant dollars, each year's value is measured in a base year's prices.

Dollar bonds

Municipal revenue bonds for which quotes are given in dollar prices. Not to be confused with
"U.S. dollar" bonds, a common term of reference in the Eurobond market.

Dollar Cost Averaging

A way of smoothing out your investment deposits by investing regularly. Instead of making one large deposit a year into your RRSP, you make smaller regular monthly deposits. If you are buying units in a mutual fund or segregated equity fund, you would end up buying more units in the month that values were low and less units in the month that values were higher. By spreading out your purchases, you don't have to worry about buying at the right time.

dollar days (of inventory)

a measurement of the value of inventory for the time that inventory is held

Dollar duration

The product of modified duration and the initial price.

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Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.

Dollar return

The return realized on a portfolio for any evaluation period, including (1) the change in market
value of the portfolio and (2) any distributions made from the portfolio during that period.

Dollar roll

Similar to the reverse repurchase agreement - a simultaneous agreement to sell a security held in a
portfolio with purchase of a similar security at a future date at an agreed-upon price.

Dollar-weighted rate of return

Also called the internal rate of return, the interest rate that will make the
present value of the cash flows from all the subperiods in the evaluation period plus the terminal market value
of the portfolio equal to the initial market value of the portfolio.


EBITDA divided by total sales or total revenue.

Effective margin (EM)

Used with SAT performance measures, the amount equaling the net earned spread, or
margin, of income on the assets in excess of financing costs for a given interest rate and prepayment rate


This is an American dollar that has been deposited in a European bank or an U.S. bank branch
located in Europe. It got there as a result of payments made to overseas companies for merchandise.

Eurodollar bonds

Eurobonds denominated in U.S.dollars.


dollars held on deposit in a bank outside the United States.


Deposits denominated in U.S. dollars but held in banks located outside the United States, such as in Canada or France.

Fixed-dollar obligations

Conventional bonds for which the coupon rate is set as a fixed percentage of the par value.

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Fixed-dollar security

A nonnegotiable debt security that can be redeemed at some fixed price or according to
some schedule of fixed values, e.g., bank deposits and government savings bonds.

Gross margin

Revenues less the cost of goods sold.

gross margin, or gross profit

This first-line measure of profit
equals sales revenue less cost of goods sold. This is profit before operating
expenses and interest and income tax expenses are deducted. Financial
reporting standards require that gross margin be reported in
external income statements. Gross margin is a key variable in management
profit reports for decision making and control. Gross margin
doesn’t apply to service businesses that don’t sell products.

Gross profit margin

Gross profit divided by sales, which is equal to each sales dollar left over after paying
for the cost of goods sold.

Gross Profit Margin

Gross profit divided by revenue.

Initial margin requirement

When buying securities on margin, the proportion of the total market value of
the securities that the investor must pay for in cash. The Security Exchange Act of 1934 gives the board of
governors of the Federal Reserve the responsibility to set initial margin requirements, but individual
brokerage firms are free to set higher requirements. In futures contracts, initial margin requirements are set by
the exchange.

Maintenance margin requirement

A sum, usually smaller than -but part of the original margin, which must
be maintained on deposit at all times. If a customer's equity in any futures position drops to, or under, the
maintenance margin level, the broker must issue a margin call for the amount at money required to restore the
customer's equity in the account to the original margin level. Related: margin, margin call.


This allows investors to buy securities by borrowing money from a broker. The margin is the
difference between the market value of a stock and the loan a broker makes. Related: security deposit (initial).


The amount added to a lower figure to reach a higher figure, expressed as a percentage of the higher figure, e.g. the margin that profit represents as a percentage of selling price.

Margin account (Stocks)

A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of
cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock and, if the value of the stock
drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. margin
rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.

Margin call

A demand for additional funds because of adverse price movement. Maintenance margin
requirement, security deposit maintenance
margin of safety With respect to working capital management, the difference between 1) the amount of longterm
financing, and 2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.

Margin of safety

A measure of the difference between the anticipated and breakeven levels of activity.

margin of safety

the excess of the budgeted or actual sales
of a company over its breakeven point; it can be calculated
in units or dollars or as a percentage; it is equal to
(1 - degree of operating leverage)

Margin requirement (Options)

The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.

Margin Tax Rate

The tax rate applicable to the last unit of income.



Marginal cost

The cost of producing one extra unit.

Marginal cost

The incremental change in the unit cost of a product as a result of a
change in the volume of its production.

Marginal Propensity to Consume

Fraction of an increase in disposable income that is spent on consumption.

Marginal Propensity to Import

Fraction of an increase in disposable income that is spent on imports.

Marginal Propensity to Save

Fraction of an increase in disposable income that is saved.

Marginal tax rate

The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.

marginal tax rate

Additional taxes owed per dollar of additional income.

Marginal Tax Rate

Percent of an increase in income paid in tax.

Net operating margin

The ratio of net operating income to net sales.

Net profit margin

Net income divided by sales; the amount of each sales dollar left over after all expenses
have been paid.

Operating profit margin

The ratio of operating margin to net sales.

Original margin

The margin needed to cover a specific new position. Related: margin, security deposit (initial)

product contribution margin

the difference between selling price and variable cost of goods sold

product line margin

see segment margin

Profit margin

Indicator of profitability. The ratio of earnings available to stockholders to net sales.
Determined by dividing net income by revenue for the same 12-month period. Result is shown as a

profit margin

the ratio of income to sales

Profit Margin Ratio

A measure of how much profit is earned on each dollar of sales. It
is calculated by dividing the net income available for distribution to
shareholders by the total sales generated during the period.

Safety cushion

In a contingent immunization strategy, the difference between the initially available
immunization level and the safety-net return.

Safety-net return

The minimum available return that will trigger an immunization strategy in a contingent
immunization strategy.

safety stock

a buffer level of inventory kept on hand by a company in the event of fluctuating usage or unusual delays in lead time

Safety stock

Extra inventory kept on hand to guard against requirements

segment margin

the excess of revenues over direct variable expenses and avoidable fixed expenses for a particular segment

Soft dollars

The value of research services that brokerage houses supply to investment managers "free of
charge" in exchange for the investment manager's business/commissions.

Split Dollar Life Insurance

The split dollar concept is usually associated with cash value life insurance where there is a death benefit and an accumulation of cash value. The basic premise is the sharing of the costs and benefits of a life insurance policy by two or more parties. Usually one party owns and pays for the insurance protection and the other owns and pays for the cash accumulation. There is no single way to structure a split dollar arrangement. The possible structures are limited only by the imagination of the parties involved.

total contribution margin

see contribution margin

Total dollar return

The dollar return on a nondollar investment, which includes the sum of any
dividend/interest income, capital gains or losses, and currency gains or losses on the investment.
See also: total return.

unit margin

The profit per unit sold of a product after deducting product
cost and variable expenses of selling the product from the sales price of
the product. Unit margin equals profit before fixed operating expenses
are considered and before interest and income tax are deducted. Unit
margin is one of the key variables in a profit model for decision-making

Variation margin

An additional required deposit to bring an investor's equity account up to the initial margin
level when the balance falls below the maintenance margin requirement.







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