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Buy-and-hold strategy

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Definition of Buy-and-hold strategy

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Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.



Related Terms:

Active portfolio strategy

A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy


Annualized holding period return

The annual rate of return that when compounded t times, would have
given the same t-period holding return as actually occurred from period 1 to period t.


Barbell strategy

A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
at two extremes.


Bill and Hold Practices

Products that have been sold with an explicit agreement that delivery
will occur at a later, often yet-to-be-determined, date.
Capitalize To report an expenditure or accrual as an asset as opposed to expensing it and charging it against earnings currently.


Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).



Bullet strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
concentrated at one point on the yield curve.


Buy

To purchase an asset; taking a long position.


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Buy-back

Another term for a repo.


Buy in

To cover, offset or close out a short position. Related: evening up, liquidation.


Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.


Buy on close

To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.


Buy on margin

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.


Buy on opening

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Buy-side analyst

A financial analyst employed by a non-brokerage firm, typically one of the larger money
management firms that purchase securities on their own accounts.


Buydowns

Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly
payments.


Buy-and-hold Strategy Image 3

Buying the index

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.


Buyout

Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.



Combination strategy

A strategy in which a put and with the same strike price and expiration are either both
bought or both sold. Related: Straddle


compensation strategy

a foundation for the compensation plan that addresses the role compensation should play in the organization


Conditional Buyer

One of two parties to a conditional sale agreement, the other being the conditional seller.


Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.


confrontation strategy

an organizational strategy in which company management decides to confront, rather than avoid, competition; an organizational strategy in which company management still attempts to differentiate company
products through new features or to develop a price
leadership position by dropping prices, even though management
recognizes that competitors will rapidly bring out
similar products and match price changes; an organizational
strategy in which company management identifies
and exploits current opportunities for competitive advantage
in recognition of the fact that those opportunities will
soon be eliminated


cost leadership strategy

a plan to achieve the position in a
competitive environment of being the low cost producer of
a product or provider of a service; it provides one method
of avoiding competition


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Cross holdings

One corporation holds shares in another firm.


Dedication strategy

Refers to multi-period cash flow matching.


differentiation strategy

a technique for avoiding competition by distinguishing a product or service from that of competitors through adding sufficient value (including quality and/or features) that customers are willing to pay
a higher price than that charged by competitors



Equity Buy-Back

Refers to the investors percentage ownership of a company that can be re-acquired by the company, usually at a pre-determined amount.


Equityholders

Those holding shares of the firm's equity.


Forward buying

The purchase of items exceeding the quantity levels indicated
by current manufacturing requirements.


hold mission

a mission that attempts to protect the business
unit’s market share and competitive position; typically pursued
by a business unit with a large market share in a
high-growth industry


Holder-of-record date

The date on which holders of record in a firm's stock ledger are designated as the
recipients of either dividends or stock rights. Also called date of record.


Holding company

A corporation that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and
operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.


Holding period

Length of time that an individual holds a security.


Holding period return

The rate of return over a given period.


Immunization strategy

A bond portfolio strategy whose goal is to eliminate the portfolio's risk against a
general change in the rate of interest through the use of duration.


Import-substitution development strategy

A development strategy followed by many Latin American
countries and other LDCs that emphasized import substitution - accomplished through protectionism - as the
route to economic growth.


Ladder strategy

A bond portfolio strategy in which the portfolio is constructed to have approximately equal
amounts invested in every maturity within a given range.


Leasehold improvement

This is any upgrade to leased property by a lessee that will be
usable for more than one year, and which exceeds the lessee’s capitalization limit.
It is recorded as a fixed asset and depreciated over a period no longer than the life
of the underlying lease.


Leasehold improvements

The cost of improvements made to property that the company leases.


Leveraged buyout

The purchase of one business entity by another, largely using borrowed
funds. The borrowings are typically paid off through the future cash flow of
the purchased entity.


Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.


leveraged buyout (LBO)

Acquisition of the firm by a private group using substantial borrowed funds.


make-or-buy decision

a decision that compares the cost of
internally manufacturing a component of a final product
(or providing a service function) with the cost of purchasing
it from outside suppliers (outsourcing) or from another
division of the company at a specified transfer price


Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.


management buyout (MBO)

Acquisition of the firm by its own management in a leveraged buyout.


Overlay strategy

A strategy of using futures for asset allocation by pension sponsors to avoid disrupting the
activities of money managers.


Passive investment strategy

See: passive management.


Passive portfolio strategy

A strategy that involves minimal expectational input, and instead relies on
diversification to match the performance of some market index. A passive strategy assumes that the
marketplace will reflect all available information in the price paid for securities, and therefore, does not
attempt to find mispriced securities. Related: active portfolio strategy


Policyholder

This is the person who owns a life insurance policy. This is usually the insured person, but it may also be a relative of the insured, a partnership or a corporation. There are instances in marriage breakup (or relationship breakup with dependent children) where appropriate life insurance on the support provider, owned and paid for by the ex-spouse receiving the support is an acceptable method of ensuring future security.


Protective put buying strategy

A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is
held in a portfolio. Related: Hedge option strategies


Randomized strategy

A strategy of introducing into the decision-making process a random element that is
designed to reduce the information content of the decision-maker's observed choices.


RATE OF RETURN ON STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

The percentage return or profit that management made on each dollar stockholders invested in a company. Here’s how you figure it:
(Net income) / (Stockholders’ equity)


RATIO OF DEBT TO STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

A ratio that shows which group—creditors or stockholders—has the biggest stake in or the most control of a company:
(Total liabilities) / (Stockholders’ equity)


Shareholder

Owner of one or more shares of stock in a corporation.


Shareholder's Equity

Represents the total assets of a corporation less liabilities.


Shareholder value

Increasing the value of the business to its shareholders, achieved through a combination of
dividend and capital growth in the value of the shares.


Shareholders' equity

This is a company's total assets minus total liabilities. A company's net worth is the
same thing.


Shareholders' equity

The total amount of contributed capital and retained earnings; synonymous with stockholders' equity.


Shareholders' Equity

The residual interest or owners' claims on the assets of a corporation
that remain after deducting its liabilities.


Shareholders’ funds

The capital invested in a business by the shareholders, including retained profits.


Shareholders' letter

A section of an annual report where one can find jargon-free discussions by
management of successful and failed strategies which provides guidance for the probing of the rest of the
report.


Spread strategy

A strategy that involves a position in one or more options so that the cost of buying an
option is funded entirely or in part by selling another option in the same underlying. Also called spreading.


stakeholder

Anyone with a financial interest in the firm.


Stakeholders

All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm - stockholders, creditors,
bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.


Stock replacement strategy

A strategy for enhancing a portfolio's return, employed when the futures
contract is expensive based on its theoretical price, involving a swap between the futures, treasury bills
portfolio and a stock portfolio.


Stockholder

holder of equity shares in a firm.


Stockholder

A person or entity that owns shares in a corporation.


Stockholder equity

Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It
includes capital stock, paid in surplus, and retained earnings.


Stockholder's books

Set of books kept by firm management for its annual report that follows Financial
Accounting Standards Board rules. The tax books follow IRS tax rules.


Stockholder's equity

The residual claims that stockholders have against a firm's assets, calculated by
subtracting total liabilities from total assets.


Stockholders' equity

The total amount of contributed capital and retained earnings; synonymous with shareholders’ equity.


stockholders' equity, statement of changes in

Although often considered
a financial statement, this is more in the nature of a supporting schedule
that summarizes in one place various changes in the owners’ equity
accounts of a business during the period—including the issuance and
retirement of capital stock shares, cash dividends, and other transactions
affecting owners’ equity. This statement (schedule) is very helpful
when a business has more than one class of stock shares outstanding
and when a variety of events occurred during the year that changed its
owners’ equity accounts.


STOCKHOLDERS’ (OR OWNERS’) EQUITY

The value of the owners’ interests in a company.


strategy

the link between an organization’s goals and objectives
and the activities actually conducted by the organization


Structured portfolio strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is designed to achieve the performance of some
predetermined liabilities that must be paid out in the future.


Swap buy-back

The sale of an interest rate swap by one counterparty to the other, effectively ending the swap.


T-period holding-period return

The percentage return over the T-year period an investment lasts.


Threshold for refinancing

The point when the WAC of an MBS is at a level to induce homeowners to
prepay the mortgage in order to refinance to a lower-rate mortgage, generally reached when the WAC of the
MBS is 2% or more above currently available mortgage rates.


Withholding tax

A tax levied by a country of source on income paid, usually on dividends remitted to the
home country of the firm operating in a foreign country. Tax levied on dividends paid abroad.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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