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Definition of Variance
A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical
The weighted average of the squared deviations from the
a difference between an actual and a standard or
The dispersion of a variable. The square of the standard deviation.
Average value of squared deviations from mean. A measure of volatility.
the difference between total actual overhead
the budget variance of the two variance approach to analyzing overhead variances
A statistical measure of the degree to which random variables move together.
A measure of the degree to which returns on two assets move in
The variance between the budgeted and actual mixes of
the difference between the total actual fixed overhead and budgeted fixed overhead;
see volume variance
the number of hours actually worked minus the standard hours allowed for the production
The difference between the amount of time that was budgeted
(actual mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X actual hours X standard rate);
the actual rate (or actual weighted average rate) paid to labor for the period minus the standard rate multiplied by all hours actually worked during the period;
The difference between the actual and standard direct labor rates
(standard mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X standard hours X standard rate);
(actual mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X actual quantity X standardprice);
total actual cost of material purchased
material quantity variance
(actual quantity X standard price) - (standard quantity allowed standard price);
material yield variance
(standard mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X standard quantity X standard price);
Materials price variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted cost to
Materials quantity variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted quantities
Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes.
The selection of portfolios based on the means and variances of their returns. The
Mean-variance efficient portfolio
Related: Markowitz efficient portfolio
Graph of the lowest possible portfolio variance that is attainable for a given
The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
the fixed overhead volume variance;
overhead efficiency variance
the difference between total budgeted overhead at actual hours and total budgeted
overhead spending variance
the difference between total actual overhead and total budgeted overhead at actual
Weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio.
Production yield variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted proportions
Selling price variance
The difference between the actual and budgeted selling price for
The covariance between a variable and the lagged value of the variable; the same as
total overhead variance
the difference between total actual overhead and total applied overhead; it is the amount of underapplied or overapplied overhead
the difference between total actual cost incurred
variable overhead efficiency variance
the difference between budgeted variable overhead based on actual input activity and variable overhead applied to production
variable overhead spending variance
the difference between total actual variable overhead and the budgeted amount of variable overhead based on actual input activity
A method of budgetary control that compares actual performance against plan, investigates the causes of the variance and takes corrective action to ensure that targets are achieved.
the process of categorizing the nature (favorable or unfavorable) of the differences between standard and actual costs and determining the reasons for those differences
Variance minimization approach to tracking
An approach to bond indexing that uses historical data to
Specifies the permitted minimum or maximum quantity of securities that can be delivered to
a fixed overhead variance that represents
a streamlined cost accounting method that speeds up, simplifies, and reduces accounting effort in an environment that minimizes inventory balances, requires
The process of ensuring that actual financial results are in line with targets – see variance
A standardized statistical measure of the dependence of two random variables,
A statistic in which the covariance is scaled to a
Covariance of a national economy's rate of return and the rate of return the world economy
Demands for securities to hedge particular sources of consumption risk, beyond the usual
Homogenous expectations assumption
An assumption of Markowitz portfolio construction that investors
For an option, the variance that makes a call option price
Magic of diversification
The effective reduction of risk (variance) of a portfolio, achieved without reduction
A strategy that seeks to combine assets a portfolio with returns that are less than
Markowitz efficient portfolio
Also called a mean-variance efficient portfolio, a portfolio that has the highest
A model for selecting an optimum investment portfolio,
A strategy whereby an investor simply invests in a number of different assets and
The variance between book and on-hand quantities, expressed
The square root of the variance. A measure of dispersion of a set of data from their mean.
A measure of the variation in a distribution, equal to the
Square root of variance. Another measure of volatility.
A cost that changes in amount in relation to changes in a related activity.
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