Financial Terms budget variance

# Definition of budget variance

## budget variance

the difference between total actual overhead
and budgeted overhead based on standard hours allowed
for the production achieved during the period; computed
as part of two-variance overhead analysis; also
referred to as the controllable variance

# Related Terms:

## controllable variance

the budget variance of the two variance approach to analyzing overhead variances

## Budget

A detailed schedule of financial activity, such as an advertising budget, a sales budget, or a capital budget.

## Budget deficit

The amount by which government spending exceeds government revenues.

## Capital budget

A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.

## Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.

## Cash budget

A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
expected cash and loan balances.

## Covariance

A statistical measure of the degree to which random variables move together.

## Mean-variance analysis

Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes.

## Mean-variance criterion

The selection of portfolios based on the means and variances of their returns. The
choice of the higher expected return portfolio for a given level of variance or the lower variance portfolio for
a given expected return.

## Mean-variance efficient portfolio

Related: Markowitz efficient portfolio

## Minimum-variance frontier

Graph of the lowest possible portfolio variance that is attainable for a given
portfolio expected return.

## Minimum-variance portfolio

The portfolio of risky assets with lowest variance.
Minority interest An outside ownership interest in a subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for
financial reporting purposes.

## Portfolio variance

Weighted sum of the covariance and variances of the assets in a portfolio.

## Serial covariance

The covariance between a variable and the lagged value of the variable; the same as
autocovariance.

## Variance

A measure of dispersion of a set of data points around their mean value. The mathematical
expectation of the squared deviations from the mean. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation.

## Variance minimization approach to tracking

An approach to bond indexing that uses historical data to
estimate the variance of the tracking error.

## Variance rule

Specifies the permitted minimum or maximum quantity of securities that can be delivered to
satisfy a TBA trade. For Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae, and Feddie Mac pass-through securities, the accepted
variance is plus or minus 2.499999 percent per million of the par value of the TBA quantity.

## Activity-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers â€“ see also activity-based costing.

## Budget

A plan expressed in monetary terms covering a future period of time and based on a defined
level of activity.

## Budget cycle

The annual period over which budgets are prepared.

## Budgetary control

The process of ensuring that actual financial results are in line with targets â€“ see variance
analysis.

## Flexible budget

A method of budgetary control that flexes, i.e. adjusts the original budget by applying standard
prices and costs per unit to the actual production volume.

## Incremental budget

A budget that takes the previous year as a base and adds (or deducts) a percentage to arrive at
the budget for the current year.

## Planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS)

A method of budgeting in which budgets are allocated to projects or programmes rather than to responsibility centres.

## Priority-based budget

A budget that allocates funds in line with strategies.

## Rolling budgets

A method of budgeting in which as each month passes, an additional budget month is added such that there is always a 12-month budget.

## Variance analysis

A method of budgetary control that compares actual performance against plan, investigates the causes of the variance and takes corrective action to ensure that targets are achieved.

## Zero-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that ignores historical budgetary allocations and identifies the costs that are necessary to implement agreed strategies.

## capital budgeting

Refers generally to analysis procedures for ranking
investments, given a limited amount of total capital that has to be allocated
among the various capital investment opportunities of a business.
The term sometimes is used interchangeably with the analysis techniques
themselves, such as calculating present value, net present value,
and the internal rate of return of investments.

## Capital Budgeting

The process of ranking and selecting investment alternatives and
capital expenditures

## Variance

The weighted average of the squared deviations from the
expected value

## activity-based budgeting (ABB)

planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
quality of production

## budget

a financial plan for the future based on a single level
of activity; the quantitative expression of a companyâ€™s commitment
to planned activities and resource acquisition and use

## budgeted cost

a planned expenditure

## budgeting

the process of formalizing plans and committing
them to written, financial terms

## budget manual

a detailed set of documents that provides information
and guidelines about the budgetary process

## budget slack

an intentional underestimation of revenues
and/or overestimation of expenses in a budgeting process
for the purpose of including deviations that are likely to
occur so that results will occur within budget limits

## capital budget

managementâ€™s plan for investments in longterm
property, plant, and equipment

## capital budgeting

a process of evaluating an entityâ€™s proposed
long-range projects or courses of future activity for
the purpose of allocating limited resources to desirable
projects

## continuous budgeting

a process in which there is a rolling
twelve-month budget; a new budget month (twelve months
into the future) is added as each current month expires

## financial budget

a plan that aggregates monetary details
from the operating budgets; includes the cash and capital
budgets of a company as well as the pro forma financial
statements

the difference between the total actual fixed overhead and budgeted fixed overhead;
it is computed as part of the four-variance overhead analysis

see volume variance

## flexible budget

a presentation of multiple budgets that
show costs according to their behavior at different levels
of activity

## imposed budget

a budget developed by top management
with little or no input from operating personnel; operating personnel are then informed of the budget objectives and constraints

## labor efficiency variance

the number of hours actually worked minus the standard hours allowed for the production
achieved multiplied by the standard rate to establish
a value for efficiency (favorable) or inefficiency (unfavorable)
of the work force

## labor mix variance

(actual mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X actual hours X standard rate);
it presents the financial effect associated with changing the
proportionate amount of higher or lower paid workers in production

## labor rate variance

the actual rate (or actual weighted average rate) paid to labor for the period minus the standard rate multiplied by all hours actually worked during the period;
it is actual labor cost minus (actual hours X standard rate)

## labor yield variance

(standard mix X actual hours X standard rate) - (standard mix X standard hours X standard rate);
it shows the monetary impact of using more or fewer total hours than the standard allowed

## master budget

the comprehensive set of all budgetary schedules
and the pro forma financial statements of an organization

## material price variance

total actual cost of material purchased
minus (actual quantity of material  standard
price); it is the amount of money spent below (favorable)
or in excess (unfavorable) of the standard price for the
quantity of materials purchased; it can be calculated based
on the actual quantity of material purchased or the actual
quantity used

## material quantity variance

(actual quantity X standard price) - (standard quantity allowed  standard price);
the standard cost saved (favorable) or expended (unfavorable)
due to the difference between the actual quantity
of material used and the standard quantity of material
allowed for the goods produced during the period

## material mix variance

(actual mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X actual quantity X standardprice);
it computes the monetary effect of substituting a nonstandard mix of material

## material yield variance

(standard mix X actual quantity X standard price) - (standard mix X standard quantity X standard price);
it computes the difference between the
actual total quantity of input and the standard total quantity
allowed based on output and uses standard mix and
standard prices to determine variance

## noncontrollable variance

it is computed as part of the two-variance approach to overhead analysis

## operating budget

a budget expressed in both units and dollars

the difference between total budgeted overhead at actual hours and total budgeted
overhead at standard hours allowed for the production
achieved; it is computed as part of a three-variance analysis;
it is the same as variable overhead efficiency variance

the difference between total actual overhead and total budgeted overhead at actual
hours; it is computed as part of three-variance analysis; it
is equal to the sum of the variable and fixed overhead
spending variances

## participatory budget

a budget that has been developed
through a process of joint decision making by top management
and operating personnel

## program budgeting

an approach to budgeting that relates
resource inputs to service outputs

## rolling budget

see continuous budgeting

the difference between total actual overhead and total applied overhead; it is the amount of underapplied or overapplied overhead

## total variance

the difference between total actual cost incurred
and total standard cost for the output produced during
the period

the difference between budgeted variable overhead based on actual input activity and variable overhead applied to production

the difference between total actual variable overhead and the budgeted amount of variable overhead based on actual input activity

## variance

a difference between an actual and a standard or
budgeted cost; it is favorable if actual is less than standard
and is unfavorable if actual is greater than standard

## variance analysis

the process of categorizing the nature (favorable or unfavorable) of the differences between standard and actual costs and determining the reasons for those differences

## volume variance

a fixed overhead variance that represents
the difference between budgeted fixed overhead and fixed
overhead applied to production of the period; is also referred
to as the noncontrollable variance

## zero-base budgeting

a comprehensive budgeting process
that systematically considers the priorities and alternatives
for current and proposed activities in relation to organization
objectives; it requires the rejustification of ongoing activities

## Covariance

A measure of the degree to which returns on two assets move in
tandem. A positive covariance means that asset returns move together; a
negative covariance means they vary inversely.

## Variance

The dispersion of a variable. The square of the standard deviation.

## Budget

A set of interlinked plans that quantitatively describe a companyâ€™s projected
future operations.

## Capital budgeting

The series of steps one follows when justifying the decision to purchase
an asset, usually including an analysis of costs and related benefits, which
should include a discounted cash flow analysis of the stream of all future cash flows
resulting from the purchase of the asset.

## Direct materials mix variance

The variance between the budgeted and actual mixes of
direct materials costs, both using the actual total quantity used. This variance isolates
the unit cost of each item, excluding all other variables.

## Labor efficiency variance

The difference between the amount of time that was budgeted
to be used by the direct labor staff and the amount actually used, multiplied
by the standard labor rate per hour.

## Labor rate variance

The difference between the actual and standard direct labor rates
actually paid to the direct labor staff, multiplied by the number of actual hours
worked.

## Materials price variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted cost to
acquire materials, multiplied by the total number of units purchased.

## Materials quantity variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted quantities
of material used in the production process, multiplied by the standard cost per
unit.

## Production yield variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted proportions
of product resulting from a production process, multiplied by the standard unit cost.

## Selling price variance

The difference between the actual and budgeted selling price for
a product, multiplied by the actual number of units sold.

## capital budget

List of planned investment projects.

## capital budgeting decision

Decision as to which real assets the firm should acquire.

## variance

Average value of squared deviations from mean. A measure of volatility.

## Balanced-Budget Multiplier

The multiplier associated with a change in government spending financed by an equal change in taxes.

## Budget Deficit

The excess of government spending over tax receipts.

## Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)

A federal Act
containing the requirements for offering insurance to departed employees.

## Variable cost

A cost that changes in amount in relation to changes in a related activity.
variance
The difference between an actual measured result and a basis, such as a budgeted amount.