|Tax Reform Act of 1986|
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Definition of Tax Reform Act of 1986
Tax Reform Act of 1986
A 1986 law involving a major overhaul of the U.S. tax code.
A method for calculating U.S. taxes owed on income from controlled foreign corporations that
A depreciation method created by the IRS under the tax reform act of 1986. Companies must use it to depreciate all plant and equipment assets installed after December 31, 1986 (for tax purposes).
This doctrine says that a nation is sovereign within its own borders and its domestic
A market in which there is much trading.
A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
a repetitive action performed in fulfillment of business functions
the process of detailing the various repetitive actions that are performed in making a product or
A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers – see also activity-based costing.
planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
A method of costing that uses cost pools to accumulate the cost of significant business activities and then assigns the costs from the cost pools to products or services based on cost drivers.
A relatively new method advocated for the
a process using multiple cost drivers to predict and allocate costs to products and services;
A cost allocation system that compiles costs and assigns
a discipline that focuses on the activities incurred during the production/performance process as the way to improve the value received
a segment of the production or service
a measure of the demands on activities and,
The actual expenditure made to acquire an asset, which includes the supplierinvoiced
actual cost system
a valuation method that uses actual direct
The physical commodity underlying a futures contract. Cash commodity, physical.
One who uses statistical information to evaluate the probability of future events and prices insurance products.
ADF (annuity discount factor)
the present value of a finite stream of cash flows for every beginning $1 of cash flow.
After-tax profit margin
The ratio of net income to net sales.
After-tax real rate of return
Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.
Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour
hours, machine hours or volume of production
The pool factor implied by the scheduled amortization assuming no prepayemts.
Present value of $1 paid for each of t periods.
Present value of an annuity of $1 per period.
Asset activity ratios
Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.
A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.
Average tax rate
taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.
average tax rate
Total taxes owed divided by total income.
Before-tax profit margin
The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.
Bill and Hold Practices
Products that have been sold with an explicit agreement that delivery
Break-even tax rate
The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
A guaranteed investment contract purchased with a single (one-shot) premium. Related:
an activity that is necessary for the operation of the business but for which a customer would not want to pay
Cash flow after interest and taxes
Net income plus depreciation.
cash flow from operating activities, or cash flow from profit
This equals the cash inflow from sales during the period minus the cash
Cash Flow Provided by Operating Activities
With some exceptions, the cash effects of transactions
Cash Flow Provided or Used from Financing Activities
Cash receipts and payments involving
Cash Flow Provided or Used from Investing Activities
Cash receipts and payments involving
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES
A section on the cash-flow statement that shows how much cash a company raised by selling stocks or bonds this year and how much was paid out for cash dividends and other finance-related obligations.
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
A section on the cashflow statement that shows how much cash came in and went out because of various investing activities like purchasing machinery.
Cash settlement contracts
Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
The market model applied to a single security. The slope of the line is a security's beta.
The percentage of a given month's sales collected during the month of sale and each
A contract accounting method that recognizes contract revenue
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
the use of computers to control production processes through numerically
computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
the integration of two or more flexible manufacturing systems through the use of a host computer and an information networking system
Conditional sales contracts
Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)
A federal act
Consumer Credit Protection Act
A federal act specifying the proportion of
A term of reference describing a unit of trading for a financial or commodity future. Also, the actual
A formal written statement of the rights and obligations of each party to a transaction.
Method of accounting for sales or service agreements where completion
an external party that has been granted an outsourcing contract to produce a part or component for an entity
The month in which futures contracts may be satisfied by making or accepting a delivery.
an external party that has been granted an
Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act
A federal act requiring federal contractors to pay overtime for hours worked exceeding 40 per week.
Rules set by the Chicago Board of Trade for determining the invoice price of each
Corporate tax view
The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
Corporate taxable equivalent
Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
cost of goods manufactured (CGM)
the total cost of the
Cost of manufacture
The cost of goods manufactured for subsequent sale.
a contract in which the customer agrees
Creative Accounting Practices
Any and all steps used to play the financial numbers game, including
critical success factors (CSF)
any item (such as quality, customer
Current Income Tax Expense
That portion of the total income tax provision that is based on
Current Tax Payment Act of 1943
A federal act requiring employers to withhold income taxes from employee pay.
Davis-Bacon Act of 1931
A federal act providing wage protection to nongovernment
Existing in actual fact although not by official recognition.
Deferred Income Tax Expense
That portion of the total income tax provision that is the result
Deferred Tax Asset
Future tax benefit that results from (1) the origination of a temporary difference
Deferred Tax Liability
Future tax obligation that results from the origination of a temporary
A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
Depreciation tax shield
The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment.
depreciation tax shield
Reduction in taxes attributable to the depreciation allowance.
design for manufacturability (DFM)
a process that is part of the project management of a new product; concerned with finding optimal solutions to minimizing product failures
Present value of $1 received at a stated future date.
Present value of a $1 future payment.
Agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)
A measure of profit that
Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)
A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)
The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)
The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.
Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)
An earningsbased measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. actually consists of working
EBDDT - Earnings before depreciation and deferred taxes
This measure is used principally by
Effective Tax Rate
The total tax provision divided by pretax book income from continuing
Electronic Federal Tax Payment Systems (EFTPS)
An electronic funds transfer system used by businesses to remit taxes to the government.
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)
A federal act that sets minimum operational and funding standards for employee benefit
Equal Pay Act of 1963
A federal act requiring that both sexes receive equal pay
Equivalent taxable yield
The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
A bond portfolio management strategy that involves finding the lowest cost portfolio
A financial institution that buys a firm's accounts receivables and collects the debt.
An agent who buys and sells goods on behalf of others for a commission.
A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon, such as the return on a
A way of decomposing the factors that influence a security's rate of return into common and
Factor of Production
A resource used to produce a good or service. The main macroeconomic factors of production are capital and labor.
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