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Definition of Look-thru

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Look-thru

A method for calculating U.S. taxes owed on income from controlled foreign corporations that
was introduced by the Tax Reform Act of 1986.



Related Terms:

Forward looking multiple

A truncated expression for a P/E ratio that is based on forward (expected)
earnings rather than on trailing earnings.


Lookback option

An option that allows the buyer to choose as the option strike price any price of the
underlying asset that has occurred during the life of the option. If a call, the buyer will choose the minimal
price, whereas if a put, the buyer will choose the maximum price. This option will always be in the money.


Abandonment option

The option of terminating an investment earlier than originally planned.


American option

An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date.
Related: European option


American option

An option that can be exercised any time until its
expiration date. Contrast with European option.



American-style option

An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and
the expiration date. Most exchange-traded options are American style.


Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.


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Asian option

option based on the average price of the asset during the life of the option.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.


Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.


Binomial option pricing model

An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.


Black-Scholes option-pricing model

A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses
the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the standard deviation
of the stock return.


cafeteria plan a “menu” of fringe benefit options that include

cash or nontaxable benefits


Call an option

To exercise a call option.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.


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Call Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to buy an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date


call option

Right to buy an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.



Compound option

option on an option.


Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies


Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.


Dealer options

Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed
securities dealers.


Delivery options

The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality
option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options make the buyer uncertain of which
Treasury Bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered.


Doubling option

A sinking fund provision that may allow repurchase of twice the required number of bonds
at the sinking fund call price.


Down-and-in option

Barrier option that comes into existence if asset price hits a barrier.


Down-and-out option

Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.


Elasticity of an option

Percentage change in the value of an option given a 1% change in the value of the
option's underlying stock.


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Embedded option

An option that is part of the structure of a bond that provides either the bondholder or
issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades
separately from any underlying security.



Equity options

Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock.


Escalating Price Option

A nonqualified stock option that uses a sliding scale for
the option price that changes in concert with a peer group index.


European option

option that may be exercised only at the expiration date. Related: american option.


European option

An option that can be exercised only on its expiration date.
Contrast with American option.


European-style option

An option contract that can only be exercised on the expiration date.


Exercising the option

The act buying or selling the underlying asset via the option contract.


Exit Options

A variety of options available to an investor to recover their invested capital and the return on their investment.


Feedforward

The process of determining prospectively whether strategies are likely to achieve the target
results that are consistent with organizational goals.


Foreign currency option

An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.


Forward buying

The purchase of items exceeding the quantity levels indicated
by current manufacturing requirements.


Forward contract

A cash market transaction in which delivery of the commodity is deferred until after the
contract has been made. It is not standardized and is not traded on organized exchanges. Although the
delivery is made in the future, the price is determined at the initial trade date.


forward contract

Agreement to buy or sell an asset in the future at an agreed price.


Forward cover

Purchase or sale of forward foreign currency in order to offset a known future cash flow.


Forward delivery

A transaction in which the settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price
agreed upon on the trade date.


Forward differential

Annualized percentage difference between spot and forward rates.


Forward discount

A currency trades at a forward discount when its forward price is lower than its spot price.


Forward Exchange Market

A market in which foreign exchange can be bought or sold for delivery (and payment) at some specified future date but at a price agreed upon now.


Forward exchange rate

Exchange rate fixed today for exchanging currency at some future date.


Forward Fed funds

Fed funds traded for future delivery.


Forward forward contract

In Eurocurrencies, a contract under which a deposit of fixed maturity is agreed to
at a fixed price for future delivery.


Forward interest rate

Interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.


Forward market

A market in which participants agree to trade some commodity, security, or foreign
exchange at a fixed price for future delivery.


Forward premium

A currency trades at a forward premium when its forward price is higher than its spot price.


Forward rate

A projection of future interest rates calculated from either the spot rates or the yield curve.


Forward rate

The future interest rate of a bond inferred from the term
structure, especially from the yield curve of zero-coupon bonds, calculated from
the growth factor of an investment in a zero held until maturity.


Forward rate agreement (FRA)

Agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate
that is fixed today.


forward rate of exchange

Exchange rate for a forward transaction.


Forward sale

A method for hedging price risk which involves an agreement between a lender and an investor
to sell particular kinds of loans at a specified price and future time.


Forward trade

A transaction in which the settlement will occur on a specified date in the future at a price
agreed upon the trade date.


Futures contract multiple

A constant, set by an exchange, which when multiplied by the futures price gives
the dollar value of a stock index futures contract.


Futures option

An option on a futures contract. Related: options on physicals.


Garmen-Kohlhagen option pricing model

A widely used model for pricing foreign currency options.


Greenshoe option

option that allows the underwriter for a new issue to buy and resell additional shares.


Heavenly Parachute Stock Option

A nonqualified stock option that allows a deceased option holder’s estate up to three years in which to exercise his or her
options.


Incentive Stock Option

An option to purchase company stock that is not taxable
to the employee at the time it is granted nor at the time when the employee
eventually exercises the option to buy stock.


Index and Option Market (IOM)

A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index
products and options. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).


Index option

A call or put option based on a stock market index.


Interest Option

One of several investment accounts in which your premiums may be invested within your life insurance policy.


Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.


Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).


Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill


Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co.


Loss carryforward

The offsetting of a current year loss against the reported taxable
income for future years.


Margin requirement (Options)

The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.


Multi-option financing facility

A syndicated confirmed credit line with attached options.


Multiple Deposit Creation

The process whereby the money multiplier operates.


Multiple-discriminant analysis (MDA)

Statistical technique for distinguishing between two groups on the
basis of their observed characteristics.


Multiple-issuer pools

Under the GNMA-II program, pools formed through the aggregation of individual
issuers' loan packages.


Multiple Lives

Two or more death benefits based on one definition with different insureds.


Multiple rates of return

More than one rate of return from the same project that make the net present value
of the project equal to zero. This situation arises when the IRR method is used for a project in which negative
cash flows follow positive cash flows. For each sign change in the cash flows, there is a rate of return.


Multiple regression

The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable.


multiple regression

a statistical technique that uses two or
more independent variables to predict a dependent variable


Multiples

Another name for price/earnings ratios.


Naked option strategies

An unhedged strategy making exclusive use of one of the following: Long call
strategy (buying call options ), short call strategy (selling or writing call options), Long put strategy (buying
put options ), and short put strategy (selling or writing put options). By themselves, these positions are called
naked strategies because they do not involve an offsetting or risk-reducing position in another option or the
underlying security.
Related: covered option strategies.


Nonqualified Stock Option

A stock option not given any favorable tax treatment
under the Internal Revenue Code. The option is taxed when it is exercised,
based on the difference between the option price and the fair market
value of the stock on that day.


Option

Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a
given date. Investors, not companies, issue options. Investors who purchase call options bet the stock will be
worth more than the price set by the option (the strike price), plus the price they paid for the option itself.
Buyers of put options bet the stock's price will go down below the price set by the option. An option is part of
a class of securities called derivatives, so named because these securities derive their value from the worth of
an underlying investment.


Option

See call option and put option


Option

A right to buy or sell specific securities or commodities at a stated
price (exercise or strike price) within a specified time. An option is a type of
derivative.


Option

Right to buy or sell a specified property at a specified amount at some time in the future.


Option-adjusted spread (OAS)

1) The spread over an issuer's spot rate curve, developed as a measure of
the yield spread that can be used to convert dollar differences between theoretical value and market price.
2) The cost of the implied call embedded in a MBS, defined as additional basis-yield spread. When added to the
base yield spread of an MBS without an operative call produces the option-adjusted spread.


Option elasticity

The percentage increase in an option's value given a 1% change in the value of the
underlying security.


Option not to deliver

In the mortgage pipeline, an additional hedge placed in tandem with the forward or
substitute sale.


Option premium

The option price.


Option price

Also called the option premium, the price paid by the buyer of the options contract for the right
to buy or sell a security at a specified price in the future.


Option seller

Also called the option writer , the party who grants a right to trade a security at a given price in
the future.


Option writer

option seller.


Options contract

A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not
the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a
specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date).


Options contract multiple

A constant, set at $100, which when multiplied by the cash index value gives the
dollar value of the stock index underlying an option. That is, dollar value of the underlying stock index = cash
index value x $100 (the options contract multiple).


Options on physicals

Interest rate options written on fixed-income securities, as opposed to those written on
interest rate futures contracts.


Out-of-the-money option

A call option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is greater than the market price
of the underlying security. A put option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is less than the market price of
the underlying security.


P/E ratio (PE ratio / multiple)

Assume XYZ Co. sells for $25.50 per share and has earned $2.55 per share this year; $25. 50 = 10
times $2. 55
XYZ stock sells for 10 times earnings. P/E = Current stock price divided by trailing annual earnings per
share or expected annual earnings per share.


Path dependent option

An option whose value depends on the sequence of prices of the underlying asset
rather than just the final price of the asset.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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