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Step-up bond

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Definition of Step-up bond

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Step-up bond

A bond that pays a lower coupon rate for an initial period which then increases to a higher
coupon rate. Related: Deferred-interest bond, Payment-in-kind bond

Related Terms:


the period after an announcement of a takeover bid in which stock prices typically rise until a merger or acquisition is made (or until it falls through).


the period before a formal announcement of a takeover bid in which one or more bidders are either preparing to make an announcement or speculating that someone else will.

Accrual bond

A bond on which interest accrues, but is not paid to the investor during the time of accrual.
The amount of accrued interest is added to the remaining principal of the bond and is paid at maturity.


1) When bond yields and prices fall, the market is said to back-up.
2) When an investor swaps out of one security into another of shorter current maturity he is said to back up.


State of being unable to pay debts. Thus, the ownership of the firm's assets is transferred from
the stockholders to the bondholders.

Bankruptcy cost view

The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt finaning.

Bankruptcy risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.

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Bankruptcy view

The argument that expected bankruptcy costs preclude firms from being financed entirely
with debt.

Bearer bond

bonds that are not registered on the books of the issuer. Such bonds are held in physical form by
the owner, who receives interest payments by physically detaching coupons from the bond certificate and
delivering them to the paying agent.


bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The U.S. government, local
governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor
buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the
loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.

Bond agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.

Bond covenant

A contractual provision in a bond indenture. A positive covenant requires certain actions, and
a negative covenant limits certain actions.

Bond equivalent yield

bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual
effective yield.

Bond indenture

The contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of

Bond indexing

Designing a portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.

Bond points

A conventional unit of measure for bond prices set at $10 and equivalent to 1% of the $100 face
value of the bond. A price of 80 means that the bond is selling at 80% of its face, or par value.

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Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.

Bond-equivalent basis

The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.

Bond-equivalent yield

The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.


A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed-income portfolio , as well as the
individual securities held in the portfolio. bondPAR decomposes the return into those elements beyond the
manager's control--such as the interest rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and
those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations,
and individual bond selection.

Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.

Brady bonds

bonds issued by emerging countries under a debt reduction plan.

Bull-bear bond

bond whose principal repayment is linked to the price of another security. The bonds are
issued in two tranches: in the first tranche repayment increases with the price of the other security, and in the
second tranche repayment decreases with the price of the other security.

Bulldog bond

Foreign bond issue made in London.

Collateral trust bonds

A bond in which the issuer (often a holding company) grants investors a lien on
stocks, notes, bonds, or other financial asset as security. Compare mortgage bond.

Completion bonding

Insurance that a construction contract will be successfully completed.

Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.

Convertible bonds

bonds that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.

Convertible eurobond

A eurobond that can be converted into another asset, often through exercise of
attached warrants.

Corporate bonds

Debt obligations issued by corporations.


The periodic interest payment made to the bondholders during the life of the bond.

Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

Coupon payments

A bond's interest payments.

Coupon rate

In bonds, notes or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually
paid twice a year.

Current coupon

A bond selling at or close to par, that is, a bond with a coupon close to the yields currently
offered on new bonds of a similar maturity and credit risk.

Current-coupon issues

Related: Benchmark issues

Cushion bonds

High-coupon bonds that sell at only at a moderate premium because they are callable at a
price below that at which a comparable non-callable bond would sell. Cushion bonds offer considerable
downside protection in a falling market.

Debenture bond

An unsecured bond whose holder has the claim of a general creditor on all assets of the
issuer not pledged specifically to secure other debt. Compare subordinated debenture bond, and collateral
trust bonds.

Deep-discount bond

A bond issued with a very low coupon or no coupon and selling at a price far below par
value. When the bond has no coupon, it's called a zero coupon bond.

Discount bond

Debt sold for less than its principal value. If a discount bond pays no interest, it is called a
zero coupon bond.

Dollar bonds

Municipal revenue bonds for which quotes are given in dollar prices. Not to be confused with
"U.S. Dollar" bonds, a common term of reference in the Eurobond market.

Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.

Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.

Equivalent bond yield

Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be
comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities.


A bond that is (1) underwritten by an international syndicate, (2) offered at issuance
simultaneously to investors in a number of countries, and (3) issued outside the jurisdiction of any single

Eurodollar bonds

Eurobonds denominated in U.S.dollars.

Euroyen bonds

Eurobonds denominated in Japanese yen.

Evening up

Buying or selling to offset an existing market position.

Extendable bond

bond whose maturity can be extended at the option of the lender or issuer.

Floating supply

The amount of securities believed to be available for immediate purchase, that is, in the
hands of dealers and investors wanting to sell.

Flower bond

Government bonds that are acceptable at par in payment of federal estate taxes when owned by
the decedent at the time of death.

Foreign bond

A bond issued on the domestic capital market of anther company.

Foreign bond market

That portion of the domestic bond market that represents issues floated by foreign
companies to governments.

Full coupon bond

A bond with a coupon equal to the going market rate, thereby, the bond is selling at par.

General obligation bonds

Municipal securities secured by the issuer's pledge of its full faith, credit, and
taxing power.

Give up

The loss in yield that occurs when a block of bonds is swapped for another block of lower-coupon
bonds. Can also be referred to as "after-tax give up" when the implications of the profit or loss on taxes are

Global bonds

bonds that are designed so as to qualify for immediate trading in any domestic capital market
and in the Euromarket.

Government bond

See: Government securities.

Group of five (G5/G-5)

The five leading countries (France, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, and the U.S.) that
meet periodically to achieve some cooperative effort on international economic issues. When currency issues
are discussed, the monetary authorities of these nations hold the meeting.

Group of seven (G7/G-7)

The G-5 countries plus Canada and Italy.

Group rotation manager

A top-down manager who infers the phases of the business cycle and allocates
assets accordingly.

High-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a high-coupon bond with a new, lower coupon bond.

High-yield bond

See:junk bond.

Income bond

A bond on which the payment of interest is contingent on sufficient earnings. These bonds are
commonly used during the reorganization of a failed or failing business.

Indexed bond

bond whose payments are linked to an index, e.g. the consumer price index.

Industrial revenue bond (IRB)

bond issued by local government agencies on behalf of corporations.

Insured bond

A municipal bond backed both by the credit of the municipal issuer and by commercial
insurance policies.

International bonds

A collective term that refers to global bonds, Eurobonds, and foreign bonds.

Investment grade bonds

A bond that is assigned a rating in the top four categories by commercial credit
rating companies. For example, S&P classifies investment grade bonds as BBB or higher, and Moodys'
classifies investment grade bonds as Ba or higher. Related: High-yield bond.

Junk bond

A bond with a speculative credit rating of BB (S&P) or Ba (Moody's) or lower is a junk or high
yield bond. Such bonds offer investors higher yields than bonds of financially sound companies. Two
agencies, Standard & Poors and Moody's investor Services, provide the rating systems for companies' credit.

Legal bankruptcy

A legal proceeding for liquidating or reorganizing a business.

Level-coupon bond

bond with a stream of coupon payments that are the same throughout the life of the bond.

Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.

Lock-up CDs

CDs that are issued with the tacit understanding that the buyer will not trade the certificate.
Quite often, the issuing bank will insist that the certificate be safekept by it to ensure that the understanding is
honored by the buyer.

Long bonds

bonds with a long current maturity. The "long bond" is the 30-year U.S. government bond.

Long coupons

1) bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.

Low-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a low coupon bond with a new, higher coupon bond.

Long bonds

bonds with a long current maturity. The "long bond" is the 30-year U.S. government bond.

Long coupons

1) bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon
periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.

Mismatch bond

Floating rate note whose interest rate is reset at more frequent intervals than the rollover
period (e.g. a note whose payments are set quarterly on the basis of the one-year interest rate).

Money supply

M1-A: Currency plus demand deposits
M1-B: M1-A plus other checkable deposits.
M2: M1-B plus overnight repos, money market funds, savings, and small (less than $100M) time deposits.
M3: M-2 plus large time deposits and term repos.
L: M-3 plus other liquid assets.

Mortgage bond

A bond in which the issuer has granted the bondholders a lien against the pledged assets.
Collateral trust bonds

Municipal bond

State or local governments offer muni bonds or municipals, as they are called, to pay for
special projects such as highways or sewers. The interest that investors receive is exempt from some income taxes.

Pass-through coupon rate

The interest rate paid on a securitized pool of assets, which is less than the rate
paid on the underlying loans by an amount equal to the servicing and guaranteeing fees.


The loss of cash resulting from a swap into higher price bonds or the need/willingness of a bank or
other borrower to pay a higher rate of interest to get funds.


The gain in yield that occurs when a block of bonds is swapped for another block of higher-coupon bonds.

Positive covenant (of a bond)

A bond covenant that specifies certain actions the firm must take. Also called
and affirmative covenant.

Premium bond

A bond that is selling for more than its par value.

Prepackaged bankruptcy

A bankruptcy in which a debtor and its creditors pre-negotiate a plan or
reorganization and then file it along with the bankruptcy petition.

Prerefunded bond

Refunded bond.

Pure-discount bond

A bond that will make only one payment of principal and interest. Also called a zerocoupon
bond or a single-payment bond.

Pure yield pickup swap

Moving to higher yield bonds.

Put bond

A bond that the holder may choose either to exchange for par value at some date or to extend for a
given number of years.

Raw material supply agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to furnish a
specified amount per period of a specified raw material.

Refunded bond

Also called a prerefunded bond, one that originally may have been issued as a general
obligation or revenue bond but that is now secured by an "escrow fund" consisting entirely of direct U.S.
government obligations that are sufficient for paying the bondholders.

Registered bond

A bond whose issuer records ownership and interest payments. Differs from a bearer bond
which is traded without record of ownership and whose possession is the only evidence of ownership.

Revenue bond

A bond issued by a municipality to finance either a project or an enterprise where the issuer
pledges to the bondholders the revenues generated by the operating projects financed, for instance, hospital
revenue bonds and sewer revenue bonds.

Samurai bond

A yen-denominated bond issued in Tokyo by a non-Japanese borrower. Related: bulldog
bond and Yankee bond.

Selling group

All banks involved in selling or marketing a new issue of stock or bonds







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