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Definition of Markup

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Markup

An increase in the cost of a product to arrive at its selling price.


markup

the period after an announcement of a takeover bid in which stock prices typically rise until a merger or acquisition is made (or until it falls through).



Related Terms:

inventory write-down

Refers to making an entry, usually at the close of a
period, to decrease the cost value of the inventories asset account in
order to recognize the lost value of products that cannot be sold at their
normal markups or will be sold below cost. A business compares the
recorded cost of products held in inventory against the sales value of the
products. Based on the lower-of-cost-or-market rule, an entry is made to
record the inventory write-down as an expense.


ABC inventory classification

A method for dividing inventory into classifications,
either by transaction volume or cost. Typically, category A includes that 20% of
inventory involving 60% of all costs or transactions, while category B includes
the next 20% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or transactions, and category
C includes the remaining 60% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or
transactions.


Average-Cost Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that assigns the average
cost of beginning inventory and inventory purchases during a period to cost of goods sold and
ending inventory.


Average inventory

The beginning inventory for a period, plus the amount at the end of
the period, divided by two. It is most commonly used in situations in which just
using the period-end inventory yields highly variable results, due to constant and
large changes in the inventory level.



Blanket inventory lien

A secured loan that gives the lender a lien against all the borrower's inventories.


Book inventory

The amount of money invested in inventory, as per a company’s
accounting records. It is comprised of the beginning inventory balance, plus the
cost of any receipts, less the cost of sold or scrapped inventory. It may be significantly
different from the actual on-hand inventory, if the two are not periodically
reconciled.


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Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).


Buydowns

Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly
payments.


Cramdown

The ability of the bankruptcy court to confirm a plan of reorganization over the objections of
some classes of creditors.


Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.


Direct write-off method

A method of adjusting accounts receivable to the amount that is expected to be collected by eliminating the account balances of specific nonpaying customers.


Distribution inventory

inventory intended for shipment to customers, usually
comprised of finished goods and service items.


dollar days (of inventory)

a measurement of the value of inventory for the time that inventory is held


Down-and-in option

Barrier option that comes into existence if asset price hits a barrier.


Down-and-out option

Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.


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Downgrade

A classic negative change in ratings for a stock, and or other rated security.


downsizing

any management action that reduces employment
upon restructuring operations in response to competitive
pressures



Ending inventory

The dollar value or unit total of goods on hand at the end of an
accounting period.


Finished goods inventory

Goods that have been completed by the manufacturing
process, or purchased in a complete form, but which have not yet been sold to
customers.


Finished goods inventory

Completed inventory items ready for shipment to
customers.


First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that
assigns the earliest inventory acquisition costs to cost of goods sold. The most recent inventory
acquisition costs are assumed to remain in ending inventory.


Fluctuation inventory

Excess inventory kept on hand to provide a buffer against
forecasting errors.


Hedge inventory

Excess inventories kept on hand as a buffer against contingent
events.


In-transit inventory

inventory currently situated between its shipment and delivery
locations.


Inactive inventory

Parts with no recent prior or forecasted usage.


Inventory

For companies: Raw materials, items available for sale or in the process of being made ready for
sale. They can be individually valued by several different means, including cost or current market value, and
collectively by FIFO, LIFO or other techniques. The lower value of alternatives is usually used to preclude
overstating earnings and assets.
For security firms: securities bought and held by a broker or dealer for resale.


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Inventory

Goods bought or manufactured for resale but as yet unsold, comprising raw materials, work-in-progress and finished goods.



Inventory

The cost of the goods that a company has available for resale.


Inventory

Goods that a firm stores in anticipation of its later sale or use as an input.


Inventory

The cost of unsold goods that are held for sale in the ordinary course of business or
that will be used or consumed in the production of goods to be sold.


Inventory

Those items included categorized as either raw materials, work-inprocess,
or finished goods, and involved in either the creation of products or service
supplies for customers.


Inventory adjustment

A transaction used to adjust the book balance of an inventory
record to the amount actually on hand.


Inventory Days

The number of days it would take to sell the ending balance in inventory at the
average rate of cost of goods sold per day. Calculated by dividing inventory by cost of goods sold
per day, which is cost of goods sold divided by 365.


Inventory diversion

The redirection of parts or finished goods away from their intended
goal.


Inventory issue

A transaction used to record the reduction in inventory from a location,
because of its release for processing or transfer to another location.


Inventory loan

A secured short-term loan to purchase inventory. The three basic forms are a blanket
inventory lien, a trust receipt, and field warehousing financing.


Inventory receipt

The arrival of an inventory delivery from a supplier or other
company location.


Inventory returns

inventory returned from a customer for any reason. This receipt
is handled differently from a standard inventory receipt, typically into an inspection
area, from which it may be returned to stock, reworked, or scrapped.


inventory shrinkage

A term describing the loss of products from inventory
due to shoplifting by customers, employee theft, damaged and
spoiled products that are thrown away, and errors in recording the purchase
and sale of products. A business should make a physical count and
inspection of its inventory to determine this loss.


Inventory Shrinkage

A shortfall between inventory based on actual physical counts and inventory
based on book records. This shortfall may be due to such factors as theft, breakage, loss, or
poor recordkeeping.


Inventory turnover

The ratio of annual sales to average inventory which measures the speed that inventory
is produced and sold. Low turnover is an unhealthy sign, indicating excess stocks and/or poor sales.


INVENTORY TURNOVER

The number of times a company sold out and replaced its average stock of goods in a year. The formula is:
(Cost of goods sold) / (Average inventory (beginning inventory + ending)/2 )


Inventory turnover

The number of times per year that an entire inventory or a
subset thereof is used.


Inventory Turnover

Ratio of annual sales to inventory, which shows how many times the inventory of a firm is sold and replaced during an accounting period.


inventory turnover ratio

The cost-of-goods-sold expense for a given
period (usually one year) divided by the cost of inventories. The ratio
depends on how long products are held in stock on average before they
are sold. Managers should closely monitor this ratio.


Inventory Turnover Ratio

Provides a measure of how often a company's inventory is sold or
"turned over" during a period. It is calculated by dividing the sales
figure for the period by the book value of the inventory at the end of
the period.


Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.


Last-In, First-Out (LIFO) Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that assigns the most recent inventory acquisition costs to cost of goods sold. The earliest inventory
acquisition costs are assumed to remain in ending inventory.


Life Underwriter

Insurance Agent.


Maximum inventory

An inventory item’s budgeted maximum inventory level,
comprising its preset safety stock level and planned lot size.


MERCHANDISE INVENTORY

The value of the products that a retailing or wholesaling company intends to resell for a profit.
In a manufacturing business, inventories would include finished goods, goods in process, raw materials, and parts and components that will go into the end product.


Minimum inventory

An inventory item’s budgeted minimum inventory level.


Moving average inventory method

An inventory costing methodology that calls for the re-calculation of the average cost of all parts in stock after every purchase.
Therefore, the moving average is the cost of all units subsequent to the latest purchase,
divided by their total cost.


Net inventory

The current inventory balance, less allocated or reserved items.


Obsolete inventory

Parts not used in any current end product.


Option writer

Option seller.


Paydown

In a Treasury refunding, the amount by which the par value of the securities maturing exceeds that
of those sold.


Periodic inventory

A physical inventory count taken on a repetitive basis.


Periodic inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the inventory account is adjusted for the units sold only at the end of the period.


Perpetual inventory

A system that continually tracks all additions to and deletions
from inventory, resulting in more accurate inventory records and a running total for
the cost of goods sold in each period.


Perpetual inventory

A manual or automated inventory tracking system in which
a new inventory balance is computed continuously whenever new transactions
occur.


Perpetual inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the inventory account is adjusted for the units sold each time a sale is made.


Physical inventory

A manual count of the on-hand inventory.


Raw materials inventory

The total cost of all component parts currently in stock that
have not yet been used in work-in-process or finished goods production.


Reconciling inventory

The process of comparing book to actual inventory balances,
and adjusting for the difference in the book records.


Seasonal inventory

Very high inventory levels built up in anticipation of large
seasonal sales.


Surplus inventory

Parts for which the on-hand quantity exceeds forecasted
requirements.


Top-down equity management style

A management style that begins with an assessment of the overall
economic environment and makes a general asset allocation decision regarding various sectors of the financial
markets and various industries. The bottom-up manager, in contrast, selects the specific securities within the
favored sectors.


Underwrite

To guarantee, as to guarantee the issuer of securities a specified price by entering into a purchase
and sale agreement. To bring securities to market.


Underwriter

A party that guarantees the proceeds to the firm from a security sale, thereby in effect taking
ownership of the securities. Or, stated differently, a firm, usually an investment bank, that buys an issue of
securities from a company and resells it to investors.


underwriter

Firm that buys an issue of securities from a company and resells it to the public.


Underwriter

See investment banker.


Underwriter

This could be the person (broker or agent) who helps you choose the proper type of life insurance or disability insurance and the insurance company for your particular needs. This could also be the person at the insurance company's head office who reviews your application for coverage to determine whether or not the insurance company will issue a policy to you.


Underwriter

Person that uses various types of evidence to evaluate the insurability of a client.


vendor-managed inventory

a streamlined system of inventory
acquisition and management by which a supplier can
be empowered to monitor EDI inventory levels and provide
its customer company a proposed e-order and subsequent
shipment after electronic acceptance


Vendor-managed inventory

The direct management and ownership of selected
on-site inventory by suppliers.


Work-in-process inventory

inventory that has been partially converted through the
production process, but for which additional work must be completed before it can
be recorded as finished goods inventory.


Write-down

Decreasing the book value of an asset if its book value is overstated compared to current market values.


Write-Down

A reduction in the balance-sheet valuation of an asset with an accompanying
expense or loss recorded in earnings.


Write off

The transfer of some or all of the contents of an asset account into an expense
account upon the realization that the asset no longer can be converted into cash, can
be of no further use to the company, or has no market value.


Writer

The seller of an option, usually an individual, bank, or company, that issues the option and
consequently has the obligation to sell the asset ( if a call) or to buy the asset (if a put) on which the option is
written if the option buyer exercises the option.


Restructuring Charge

A special, nonrecurring charge taken in conjunction with a consolidation
or relocation of operations, or the disposition or abandonment of operations or productive
assets. Such charges may include impairment losses as well as other expenses, such as writedowns
of other assets including accounts receivable and inventory, and accruals of liabilities for
so-called exit costs, including such expenses as lease terminations, closure costs, severance pay,
benefits, and retraining.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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