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Definition of Reaganomics

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The economic program of President Ronald Reagan, including tax cuts, restraint in spending except for defence spending, and less regulation.

Related Terms:

economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.

After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.

After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

Asymmetric taxes

A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.

Average tax rate

taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.

Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.

Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.

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Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.

Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.

Deferred taxes

A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to cover tax liabilities that have not yet been paid.

Depreciation tax shield

The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment.

Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.

Double-tax agreement

Agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

Economic assumptions

economic environment in which the firm expects to reside over the life of the
financial plan.

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Economic defeasance

See: in-substance defeasance.

Economic dependence

Exists when the costs and/or revenues of one project depend on those of another.

Economic earnings

The real flow of cash that a firm could pay out forever in the absence of any change in
the firm's productive capacity.

Economic exposure

The extent to which the value of the firm will change because of an exchange rate change.

Economic income

Cash flow plus change in present value.

Economic order quantity (EOQ)

The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.

Economic rents

Profits in excess of the competitive level.

Economic risk

In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements.

Economic surplus

For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market
value of its liabilities.

Economic union

An agreement between two or more countries that allows the free movement of capital,
labor, all goods and services, and involves the harmonization and unification of social, fiscal, and monetary

Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

Except for opinion

An auditor's opinion reflecting the fact that the auditor was unable to audit certain areas
of the company's operations because of restrictions imposed by management or other conditions beyond the
auditor's control.

Foreign tax credit

Home country credit against domestic income tax for foreign taxes paid on foreign
derived earnings.

Guarantor program

Under the Freddie Mac program, the aggregation by a single issuer (usually an S&L)
for the purpose of forming a qualifying pool to be issued as PCs under the Freddie Mac guarantee.

Harmless warrant

Warrant that allows the user to purchase a bond only by surrendering an existing bond
with similar terms.

Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.

Informationless trades

Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.

Integer programming

Variant of linear programming whereby the solution values must be integers.

Interest equalization tax

tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.

Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.

Investment tax credit

Proportion of new capital investment that can be used to reduce a company's tax bill
(abolished in 1986).

Leading economic indicators

economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.


An entity that leases an asset from another entity.


An entity that leases an asset to another entity.
Letter of comment A communication to the firm from the SEC that suggests changes to its registration

Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.

Linear programming

Technique for finding the maximum value of some equation subject to stated linear constraints.


An entity that leases an asset to another entity.

Marginal tax rate

The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.

Mathematical programming

An operations research technique that solves problems in which an optimal
value is sought subject to specified constraints. Mathematical programming models include linear
programming, quadratic programming, and dynamic programming.

Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.

Planned capital expenditure program

Capital expenditure program as outlined in the corporate financial plan.

Planned financing program

program of short-term and long-term financing as outlined in the corporate
financial plan.

Program trades

Also called basket trades, orders requiring the execution of trades in a large number of
different stocks at as near the same time as possible. Related: block trade

Program trading

Trades based on signals from computer programs, usually entered directly from the trader's
computer to the market's computer system and executed automatically.

Progressive tax system

A tax system wherein the average tax rate increases for some increases in income but
never decreases with an increase in income.

Regulation A

The securities regulation that exempts small public offerings, those valued at less than
$1.5MM, from most registration requirements with the SEC.

Regulation D

Fed regulation currently that required member banks to hold reserves against their net
borrowings from foreign offices of other banks over a 28-day averaging period. regulation D has been
merged with regulation M.

Regulation M

Fed regulation currently requiring member banks to hold reserves against their net borrowings
from their foreign branches over a 28-day averaging period. Reg M has also required member banks to hold
reserves against Eurodollars lent by their foreign branches to domestic corporations for domestic purposes.

Regulation Q

Fed regulation imposing caps on the rates that banks may pay on savings and time deposits.
Currently time deposits with a denomination of $100,000 or more are exempt from Reg Q.

Riskless rate

The rate earned on a riskless investment, typically the rate earned on the 90-day U.S. Treasury Bill.

Riskless rate of return

The rate earned on a riskless asset.

Riskless arbitrage

The simultaneous purchase and sale of the same asset to yield a profit.

Riskless or risk-free asset

An asset whose future return is known today with certainty. The risk free asset is
commonly defined as short-term obligations of the U.S. government.

Short-term tax exempts

Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.

Split-rate tax system

A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are
distributed as dividends.

Tandem programs

Under Ginnie Mae, mortgage funds provided at below-market rates to residential
mortgage buyers with FHA Section 203 and 235 loans and to developers of multifamily projects with Section
236 loans initially and later with Section 221(d)(4) loans.

TANs (tax anticipation notes)

tax anticipation notes issued by states or municipalities to finance current
operations in anticipation of future tax receipts.

Tax anticipation bills (TABs)

Special bills that the Treasury occasionally issues that mature on corporate
quarterly income tax dates and can be used at face value by corporations to pay their tax liabilities.

Tax books

Set of books kept by a firm's management for the IRS that follows IRS rules. The stockholder's
books follow Financial Accounting Standards Board rules.

Tax clawback agreement

An agreement to contribute as equity to a project the value of all previously
realized project-related tax benefits not already clawed back to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency of the project.

Tax differential view ( of dividend policy)

The view that shareholders prefer capital gains over dividends,
and hence low payout ratios, because capital gains are effectively taxed at lower rates than dividends.

Tax-exempt sector

The municipal bond market where state and local governments raise funds. Bonds issued
in this sector are exempt from federal income taxes.

Tax free acquisition

A merger or consolidation in which 1) the acquirer's tax basis in each asset whose
ownership is transferred in the transaction is generally the same as the acquiree's, and 2) each seller who
receives only stock does not have to pay any tax on the gain he realizes until the shares are sold.

Tax haven

A nation with a moderate level of taxation and/or liberal tax incentives for undertaking specific
activities such as exporting or investing.

Tax Reform Act of 1986

A 1986 law involving a major overhaul of the U.S. tax code.

Tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from taking an allowable deduction from taxable income.

Tax swap

Swapping two similar bonds to receive a tax benefit.

Tax deferral option

The feature of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code that the capital gains tax on an asset is
payable only when the gain is realized by selling the asset.

Tax-deferred retirement plans

Employer-sponsored and other plans that allow contributions and earnings to
be made and accumulate tax-free until they are paid out as benefits.

Tax-timing option

The option to sell an asset and claim a loss for tax purposes or not to sell the asset and
defer the capital gains tax.

Taxable acquisition

A merger or consolidation that is not a tax-fee acquisition. The selling shareholders are
treated as having sold their shares.

Taxable income

Gross income less a set of deductions.

Taxable transaction

Any transaction that is not tax-free to the parties involved, such as a taxable acquisition.

Two-tier tax system

A method of taxation in which the income going to shareholders is taxed twice.

Value-added tax

Method of indirect taxation whereby a tax is levied at each stage of production on the value
added at that specific stage.

Withholding tax

A tax levied by a country of source on income paid, usually on dividends remitted to the
home country of the firm operating in a foreign country. tax levied on dividends paid abroad.

Zero-one integer programming

An analytical method that can be used to determine the solution to a capital
rationing problem.


What the business paid to the IRS.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.

Economic Value Added (EVA)

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.

Planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS)

A method of budgeting in which budgets are allocated to projects or programmes rather than to responsibility centres.

Profit before interest and taxes (PBIT)


Payroll tax expense

The amount of tax associated with salaries that an employer pays to governments (federal, state, and local).

Payroll taxes payable

The amount of payroll taxes owed to the various governments at the end of a period.

earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses—but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.

economic integration

the creation of multi-country markets
by developing transnational rules that reduce the fiscal and
physical barriers to trade as well as encourage greater economic
cooperation among countries

economic order quantity (EOQ)

an estimate of the number
of units per order that will be the least costly and provide
the optimal balance between the costs of ordering
and the costs of carrying inventory

economic production run (EPR)

an estimate of the number
of units to produce at one time that minimizes the total
costs of setting up production runs and carrying inventory

economically reworked

when the incremental revenue from the sale of reworked defective units is greater than
the incremental cost of the rework

economic value added (EVA)

a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated
as income minus (invested capital times the cost of capital percentage)

fixed overhead spending variance

the difference between the total actual fixed overhead and budgeted fixed overhead;
it is computed as part of the four-variance overhead analysis

integer programming

a mathematical programming technique in which all solutions for variables must be restricted to whole numbers

linear programming

a method of mathematical programming used to solve a problem that involves an objective function and multiple limiting factors or constraints long-term variable cost a cost that was traditionally viewed as a fixed cost







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