Financial Terms Cash flow after interest and taxes

# Definition of Cash flow after interest and taxes

## Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

# Related Terms:

## fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

## NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

## PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in todayâ€™s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

## Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).

## After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.

## After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

## Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).

## Asymmetric taxes

A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.

## Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.

## Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").

## Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.

## Capitalized interest

interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.

## Cash

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a company. Usually
includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's Acceptances. cash
equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

## Cash budget

A forecasted summary of a firm's expected cash inflows and cash outflows as well as its
expected cash and loan balances.

## Cash and carry

Purchase of a security and simultaneous sale of a future, with the balance being financed
with a loan or repo.

## Cash and equivalents

The value of assets that can be converted into cash immediately, as reported by a
company. Usually includes bank accounts and marketable securities, such as government bonds and Banker's
Acceptances. cash equivalents on balance sheets include securities (e.g., notes) that mature within 90 days.

## Cash commodity

The actual physical commodity, as distinguished from a futures contract.

## Cash conversion cycle

The length of time between a firm's purchase of inventory and the receipt of cash
from accounts receivable.

## Cash cow

A company that pays out all earnings per share to stockholders as dividends. Or, a company or
division of a company that generates a steady and significant amount of free cash flow.

## Cash cycle

In general, the time between cash disbursement and cash collection. In net working capital
management, it can be thought of as the operating cycle less the accounts payable payment period.

## Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.

## Cash delivery

The provision of some futures contracts that requires not delivery of underlying assets but
settlement according to the cash value of the asset.

## Cash discount

An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
period, such as ten days.

## Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in

## Cash equivalent

A short-term security that is sufficiently liquid that it may be considered the financial
equivalent of cash.

## Cash flow

In investments, it represents earnings before depreciation , amortization and non-cash charges.
Sometimes called cash earnings. cash flow from operations (called funds from operations ) by real estate and
other investment trusts is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.

## Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.

## Cash flow from operations

A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
(disregarding extraordinary items such as the sale of fixed assets or transaction costs associated with issuing
securities), calculated as the sum of net income plus non-cash expenses that were deducted in calculating net
income.

## Cash flow matching

Also called dedicating a portfolio, this is an alternative to multiperiod immunization in
which the manager matches the maturity of each element in the liability stream, working backward from the
last liability to assure all required cash flows.

## Cash flow per common share

cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.

## Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

## Cash-flow break-even point

The point below which the firm will need either to obtain additional financing
or to liquidate some of its assets to meet its fixed costs.

## Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.

## Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.

## Cash offer

A public equity issue that is sold to all interested investors.

## Cash ratio

The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.

## Cash settlement contracts

Futures contracts, such as stock index futures, that settle for cash, not involving
the delivery of the underlying.

## Cash transaction

A transaction where exchange is immediate, as contrasted to a forward contract, which
calls for future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price.

## Cash-equivalent items

Temporary investments of currently excess cash in short-term, high-quality
investment media such as treasury bills and Banker's Acceptances.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Cashout

Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

## Compound interest

interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal.

## Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for
dollars.

## Deferred taxes

A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to cover tax liabilities that have not yet been paid.

## Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Future cash flows multiplied by discount factors to obtain present values.

## Discretionary cash flow

cash flow that is available after the funding of all positive NPV capital investment
projects; it is available for paying cash dividends, repurchasing common stock, retiring debt, and so on.

## Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

## Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding.

## Equilibrium rate of interest

The interest rate that clears the market. Also called the market-clearing interest
rate.

## Equivalent annual cash flow

Annuity with the same net present value as the company's proposed investment.

## Expected future cash flows

Projected future cash flows associated with an asset of decision.

## Flower bond

Government bonds that are acceptable at par in payment of federal estate taxes when owned by
the decedent at the time of death.

## Flow-through basis

An account for the investment credit to show all income statement benefits of the credit
in the year of acquisition, rather than spreading them over the life of the asset acquired.

## Flow-through method

The practice of reporting to shareholders using straight-line depreciation and
accelerated depreciation for tax purposes and "flowing through" the lower income taxes actually paid to the
financial statement prepared for shareholders.

## Forward interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.

## Free cash flows

cash not required for operations or for reinvestment. Often defined as earnings before
interest (often obtained from operating income line on the income statement) less capital expenditures less the
change in working capital.

## General cash offer

A public offering made to investors at large.

## Gross interest

interest earned before taxes are deducted.

## Incremental cash flows

Difference between the firm's cash flows with and without a project.

## Interest

The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time and
reflects the rate of exchange of present consumption for future consumption. Also, a share or title in property.

## Interest coverage ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This
ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.

## Interest coverage test

A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional long-term debt if the issuer's
interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum.

## Interest equalization tax

Tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.

## Interest payments

Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount.

## Interest on interest

interest earned on reinvestment of each interest payment on money invested.
See: compound interest.

## Interest-only strip (IO)

A security based solely on the interest payments form a pool of mortgages, Treasury
bonds, or other bonds. Once the principal on the mortgages or bonds has been repaid, interest payments stop
and the value of the IO falls to zero.

## Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).

## Interest rate cap

Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made
when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.

## Interest rate ceiling

Related: interest rate cap.

## Interest rate floor

An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls
below the strike rate.

## Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.

## Interest rate parity theorem

interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.

## Interest rate risk

The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a
bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that
spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.

## Interest rate swap

A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on
some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party
will pay fixed and receive variable.

## Interest subsidy

A firm's deduction of the interest payments on its debt from its earnings before it calculates
its tax bill under current tax law.

## Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.

## Ledger cash

A firm's cash balance as reported in its financial statements. Also called book cash.

## Net cash balance

Beginning cash balance plus cash receipts minus cash disbursements.

## Nominal cash flow

A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received or paid out are given.

## Nominal interest rate

The interest rate unadjusted for inflation.

## Noncash charge

A cost, such as depreciation, depletion, and amortization, that does not involve any cash outflow.

## Open interest

The total number of derivative contracts traded that not yet been liquidated either by an
offsetting derivative transaction or by delivery. Related: liquidation

## Operating cash flow

Earnings before depreciation minus taxes. It measures the cash generated from
operations, not counting capital spending or working capital requirements.

## Pooling of interests

An accounting method for reporting acquisitions accomplished through the use of equity.
The combined assets of the merged entity are consolidated using book value, as opposed to the purchase
method, which uses market value. The merging entities' financial results are combined as though the two
entities have always been a single entity.

## Price-specie-flow mechanism

Adjustment mechanism under the classical gold standard whereby
disturbances in the price level in one country would be wholly or partly offset by a countervailing flow of
specie (gold coins) that would act to equalize prices across countries and automatically bring international
payments back in balance.

## Production-flow commitment

An agreement by the loan purchaser to allow the monthly loan quota to be
delivered in batches.

## Rate of interest

The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.

## Real cash flow

A cash flow is expressed in real terms if the current, or date 0, purchasing power of the cash
flow is given.

## Real interest rate

The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms
of constant-purchasing-power dollars. interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate

## Scheduled cash flows

The mortgage principal and interest payments due to be paid under the terms of the
mortgage not including possible prepayments.

## Short interest

This is the total number of shares of a security that investors have borrowed, then sold in the
hope that the security will fall in value. An investor then buys back the shares and pockets the difference as profit.

## Simple interest

interest calculated only on the initial investment. Related:compound interest.

## Spot interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: forward interest rates.

## Stated annual interest rate

The interest rate expressed as a per annum percentage, by which interest
payment is determined.

## Statement of cash flows

A financial statement showing a firm's cash receipts and cash payments during a
specified period.

## Statement-of-cash-flows method

A method of cash budgeting that is organized along the lines of the statement of cash flows.

## Symmetric cash matching

An extension of cash flow matching that allows for the short-term borrowing of
funds to satisfy a liability prior to the liability due date, resulting in a reduction in the cost of funding liabilities.

## Target cash balance

Optimal amount of cash for a firm to hold, considering the trade-off between the
opportunity costs of holding too much cash and the trading costs of holding too little cash.

## Times-interest-earned ratio

Earnings before interest and tax, divided by interest payments.