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Double-tax agreement

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Definition of Double-tax agreement

Double-tax Agreement Image 1

Double-tax agreement

agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.



Related Terms:

After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.


After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.


Asymmetric taxes

A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.


Average tax rate

taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.


average tax rate

Total taxes owed divided by total income.



Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.


Bond agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.


Double-tax Agreement Image 2

Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.


Bretton Woods Agreement

An agreement signed by the original United Nations members in 1944 that
established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the post-World War II international monetary system
of fixed exchange rates.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Cash deficiency agreement

An agreement to invest cash in a project to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency the project may experience.


Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.


Concession agreement

An understanding between a company and the host government that specifies the
rules under which the company can operate locally.


Conditional Sale Agreement

An agreement entered into between a conditional buyer and a conditional seller setting out the terms under which goods change hands.


Confidentiality Agreement

A legal document whereby the one party, usually the prospective investor, pledges to keep strictly confidential, and return on request, any and all information provided by the entrepreneur seeking funding.


Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.


Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.


Current Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is based on
taxable income.



Current Tax Payment Act of 1943

A federal Act requiring employers to withhold income taxes from employee pay.


Deferred Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is the result
of current-period originations and reversals of temporary differences.


Deferred Tax Asset

Future tax benefit that results from (1) the origination of a temporary difference
that causes pretax book income to be less than taxable income or (2) a loss, credit, or other
carryforward. Future tax benefits are realized on the reversal of deductible temporary differences
or the offsetting of a loss carryforward against taxable income or a tax-credit carryforward against
the current tax provision.


Deferred Tax Liability

Future tax obligation that results from the origination of a temporary
difference that causes pretax book income to exceed taxable income.


Deferred taxes

A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to cover tax liabilities that have not yet been paid.


Depreciation tax shield

The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment.


depreciation tax shield

Reduction in taxes attributable to the depreciation allowance.


Double-declining-balance depreciation

Method of accelerated depreciation.


Double-dip lease

A cross-border lease in which the disparate rules of the lessor's and lessee's countries let
both parties be treated as the owner of the leased equipment for tax purposes.


Double entry

The system of recording business transactions in two accounts.



double-entry accounting

See accrual-basis accounting.


earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses—but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.


Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.


Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.


Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.


Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

An earningsbased measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. Actually consists of working
capital provided by operations before interest and taxes.


EBDDT - Earnings before depreciation and deferred taxes

This measure is used principally by
firms in the real estate industry, with the exception of real estate investment trusts, which typically
do not pay taxes.


Effective Tax Rate

The total tax provision divided by pretax book income from continuing
operations.


Electronic Federal Tax Payment Systems (EFTPS)

An electronic funds transfer system used by businesses to remit taxes to the government.


Equity contribution agreement

An agreement to contribute equity to a project under certain specified
conditions.


Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.


Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)

A federal Act requiring employers to pay a tax on the wages paid to their employees, which is then used to create a
pool of funds to be used for unemployment benefits.


Fiscal agency agreement

An alternative to a bond trust deed. Unlike the trustee, the fiscal agent acts as an
agent of the borrower.


Foreign tax credit

Home country credit against domestic income tax for foreign taxes paid on foreign
derived earnings.


Forward rate agreement (FRA)

agreement to borrow or lend at a specified future date at an interest rate
that is fixed today.


General Agreement

on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) a treaty
among many nations setting standards for tariffs and trade
for signees


Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.


INCOME TAX

What the business paid to the IRS.


Income tax

A government tax on the income earned by an individual or corporation.


Income Tax Expense

See income tax provision.


Income Tax Provision

The expense deduction from pretax book income reported on the
income statement. It consists of both current income tax expense and deferred income tax
expense. The terms income tax expense and income tax provision are used interchangeably.


Indirect Taxes

taxes paid by consumers when they buy goods and services. A sales tax is an example.


Inflation Tax

The loss in purchasing power due to inflation eroding the real value of financial assets such as cash.


Interest equalization tax

tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.


Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).


Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.


interest tax shield

tax savings resulting from deductibility of interest payments.


Investment tax credit

Proportion of new capital investment that can be used to reduce a company's tax bill
(abolished in 1986).


Investment Tax Credit

A reduction in taxes offered to firms to induce them to increase investment spending.


Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.


Margin Tax Rate

The tax rate applicable to the last unit of income.


Marginal tax rate

The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.


marginal tax rate

Additional taxes owed per dollar of additional income.


Marginal Tax Rate

Percent of an increase in income paid in tax.


North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

an agreement among Canada, Mexico, and the United States establishing the North American Free Trade Zone, with a resulting reduction in trade barriers


Note agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.


Payroll tax expense

The amount of tax associated with salaries that an employer pays to governments (federal, state, and local).


Payroll taxes payable

The amount of payroll taxes owed to the various governments at the end of a period.


Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.


Preferred stock agreement

A contract for preferred stock.


Profit before interest and taxes (PBIT)

See EBIT.


Progressive Tax

A tax in which the rich pay a larger percentage of income than the poor. Contrast with regressive tax.


Progressive tax system

A tax system wherein the average tax rate increases for some increases in income but
never decreases with an increase in income.


Proportional Tax

A tax taking the same percentage of income regardless of the level of income.


Purchase agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to purchase a specific
amount of project output per period.


Purchase Agreement

This legal document records the final understanding of the parties with respect to the proposed transaction.


Raw material supply agreement

As used in connection with project financing, an agreement to furnish a
specified amount per period of a specified raw material.


Regressive Tax

A tax in which the poor pay a larger percentage of income than the rich. Contrast with progressive tax.


Repurchase agreement

An agreement with a commitment by the seller (dealer) to buy a security back from
the purchaser (customer) at a specified price at a designated future date. Also called a repo, it represents a
collateralized short-term loan, where the collateral may be a Treasury security, money market instrument,
federal agency security, or mortgage-backed security. From the purchaser (customer) perspective, the deal is
reported as a reverse Repo.


Revolving credit agreement

A legal commitment wherein a bank promises to lend a customer up to a
specified maximum amount during a specified period.


Roth IRA. An IRA account whose earnings are not taxable at all under certain

circumstances.


Sales Tax

A tax levied as a percentage of retail sales.


Short-term tax exempts

Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.


Smithsonian agreement

A revision to the Bretton Woods international monetary system which was signed at
the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., in December 1971. Included were a new set of par
values, widened bands to +/- 2.25% of par, and an increase in the official value of gold to US$38.00 per ounce.


Split-rate tax system

A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are
distributed as dividends.


Standby agreement

In a rights issue, agreement that the underwriter will purchase any stock not purchased by investors.


Standstill agreements

Contracts where the bidding firm in a takeover attempt agrees to limit its holdings
another firm.


State Disability Tax

A tax charged by selected states to maintain a disability insurance
fund, from which payments are made to employees who are unable to
work due to illness or injury.


Statutory Tax Rate

The income tax rate that is stated in income tax law. It is applied to taxable
income reported in income tax returns. The U.S. Federal statutory corporate income tax rate
starts out at 15% for taxable income up to $50,000 and rises quickly to 35%.


TANs (tax anticipation notes)

tax anticipation notes issued by states or municipalities to finance current
operations in anticipation of future tax receipts.


Tax anticipation bills (TABs)

Special bills that the Treasury occasionally issues that mature on corporate
quarterly income tax dates and can be used at face value by corporations to pay their tax liabilities.


tax benefit (of depreciation)

the amount of depreciation deductible for tax purposes multiplied by the tax rate;
the reduction in taxes caused by the deductibility of depreciation


Tax books

Set of books kept by a firm's management for the IRS that follows IRS rules. The stockholder's
books follow Financial Accounting Standards Board rules.


Tax clawback agreement

An agreement to contribute as equity to a project the value of all previously
realized project-related tax benefits not already clawed back to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency of the project.


tax deferral

postponing taxation of an amount until a future date


Tax deferral option

The feature of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code that the capital gains tax on an asset is
payable only when the gain is realized by selling the asset.


tax-deferred income

current compensation that is taxed at a future date


Tax-deferred retirement plans

Employer-sponsored and other plans that allow contributions and earnings to
be made and accumulate tax-free until they are paid out as benefits.


Tax differential view ( of dividend policy)

The view that shareholders prefer capital gains over dividends,
and hence low payout ratios, because capital gains are effectively taxed at lower rates than dividends.


tax-exempt income

current compensation that is never taxed


Tax-exempt sector

The municipal bond market where state and local governments raise funds. Bonds issued
in this sector are exempt from federal income taxes.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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