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Negative Loan Covenants

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Definition of Negative Loan Covenants

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Negative Loan Covenants

loan covenants designed to limit a corporate borrower's behavior
in favor of the lender.



Related Terms:

Back-to-back loan

A loan in which two companies in separate countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific time period and repay the other's currency at an agreed upon maturity.


Bridge Loan

A short term loan to cover the immediate cash requirements until permanent financing is received.


Broker loan rate

Related: Call money rate.


Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).


Bullet loan

A bank term loan that calls for no amortization.



Commercial Business Loan (Credit Insurance)

An agreement between a creditor and a borrower, where the creditor has loaned an amount to the borrower for business purposes.


Covenants

Provisions in a bond indenture or preferred stock agreement that require the bond or preferred
stock issuer to take certain specified actions (affirmative covenants) or to refrain from taking certain specified
actions (negative covenants).


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Covenants

Promise usually made in a contract whereby a party to the contract promises to do or not to do specified things.


Dealer loan

Overnight, collateralized loan made to a dealer financing his position by borrowing from a
money market bank.


Demand Loan

A loan which must be repaid in full on demand.


Equivalent loan

Given the after-tax stream associated with a lease, the maximum amount of conventional
debt that the same period-by-period after-tax debt service stream is capable of supporting.


Farm Improvement and Marketing Cooperatives Loans Act

See here


Federal Home Loan Banks

The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The
Federal Home loan Banks play a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve Banks vis-Ó-vis
member commercial banks.


Financial Covenants

A promise made related to financial conditions or events. Often a promise not to allow certain balance sheet items or ratios to fall below an agreed level. Usually found in loan documents, as a protection mechanism.


Fixed-rate loan

A loan on which the rate paid by the borrower is fixed for the life of the loan.


Fixed Rate Loan

loan for a fixed period of time with a fixed interest rate for the life of the loan.


Negative Loan Covenants Image 3

Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)

A Congressionally chartered corporation that
purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and
securitizes these mortgages for sale into the capital markets.


Intercompany loan

loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation.



Inventory loan

A secured short-term loan to purchase inventory. The three basic forms are a blanket
inventory lien, a trust receipt, and field warehousing financing.


Jumbo loan

loans of $1 billion or more. Or, loans that exceed the statutory size limit eligible for purchase or
securitization by the federal agencies.


Loan amortization schedule

The schedule for repaying the interest and principal on a loan.


Loan Capital

Borrowed funds having a fixed interest rate.


Loan Covenants

Express stipulations included in loan agreements that are designed to monitor
corporate performance and restrict corporate acts, affording added protection to the lender.


Loan syndication

Group of banks sharing a loan. See: syndicate.


Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.


Loans payable

Amounts that have been loaned to the company and that it still owes.


Multicurrency loans

Give the borrower the possibility of drawing a loan in different currencies.


Multifamily loans

loans usually represented by conventional mortgages on multi-family rental apartments.



Negative amortization

A loan repayment schedule in which the outstanding principal balance of the loan
increases, rather than amortizing, because the scheduled monthly payments do not cover the full amount
required to amortize the loan. The unpaid interest is added to the outstanding principal, to be repaid later.


Negative carry

Related: net financing cost


negative cash flow

The cash flow from the operating activities of a business
can be negative, which means that its cash balance decreased from
its sales and expense activities during the period. When a business is
operating at a loss instead of making a profit, its cash outflows for
expenses very likely may be more than its cash inflow from sales. Even
when a business makes a profit for the period, its cash inflow from sales
could be considerably less than the sales revenue recorded for the
period, thus causing a negative cash flow for the period. Caution: This
term also is used for certain types of investments in which the net cash
flow from all sources and uses is negative. For example, investors in
rental real estate properties often use the term to mean that the cash
inflow from rental income is less than all cash outflows during the
period, including payments on the mortgage loan on the property.


Negative convexity

A bond characteristic such that the price appreciation will be less than the price
depreciation for a large change in yield of a given number of basis points.


Negative covenant

A bond covenant that limits or prohibits altogether certain actions unless the bondholders agree.


Negative duration

A situation in which the price of the MBS moves in the same direction as interest rates.


Negative goodwill

A term used to describe a situation in which a business combination
results in the fair market value of all assets purchased being more than the purchase
price.


Negative pledge clause

A bond covenant that requires the borrower to grant lenders a lien equivalent to any
liens that may be granted in the future to any other currently unsecured lenders.


Operating Loan

A loan advanced under an operating line of credit.


Parallel loan

A process whereby two companies in different countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific period of time, and repay the other's currency at an agreed maturity for the purpose of reducing
foreign exchange risk. Also referred to as back-to-back loans.


personal loan

A lump sum that you borrow from a financial institution for a specified period of time. To repay the loan, you pay interest on the entire lump sum, and make payments on a scheduled basis.


Positive Loan Covenants

loan covenants expressing minimum and maximum financial measures
that must be met by a borrower.


Project loan certificate (PLC)

A primary program of Ginnie Mae for securitizing FHA-insured and coinsured
multifamily, hospital, and nursing home loans.


Project loan securities

Securities backed by a variety of FHA-insured loan types - primarily multi-family
apartment buildings, hospitals, and nursing homes.


Project loans

Usually FHA-insured and HUD-guaranteed mortgages on multiple-family housing complexes,
nursing homes, hospitals, and other development types.


Restrictive covenants

Provisions that place constraints on the operations of borrowers, such as restrictions on
working capital, fixed assets, future borrowing, and payment of dividend.


Savings and Loan association

National- or state-chartered institution that accepts savings deposits and
invests the bulk of the funds thus received in mortgages.


secured loan or line of credit

A lump sum of funds (loan), or a revolving source of credit with a pre-established limit (line of credit), for which the customer must provide collateral.


Self-liquidating loan

loan to finance current assets, The sale of the current assets provides the cash to repay
the loan.


Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.


Term Loan

A secured loan made to business concerns for a specific period (normally three to ten years). It is repaid with interest, usually with periodical payments.


Transaction loan

A loan extended by a bank for a specific purpose. In contrast, lines of credit and revolving
credit agreements involve loans that can be used for various purposes.


Variable rate loan

loan made at an interest rate that fluctuates based on a base interest rate such as the
Prime Rate or LIBOR.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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