Financial Terms
Inventory loan

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Definition of Inventory loan

Inventory Loan Image 1

Inventory loan

A secured short-term loan to purchase inventory. The three basic forms are a blanket
inventory lien, a trust receipt, and field warehousing financing.

Related Terms:

ABC inventory classification

A method for dividing inventory into classifications,
either by transaction volume or cost. Typically, category A includes that 20% of
inventory involving 60% of all costs or transactions, while category B includes
the next 20% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or transactions, and category
C includes the remaining 60% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or

Average-Cost Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that assigns the average
cost of beginning inventory and inventory purchases during a period to cost of goods sold and
ending inventory.

Average inventory

The beginning inventory for a period, plus the amount at the end of
the period, divided by two. It is most commonly used in situations in which just
using the period-end inventory yields highly variable results, due to constant and
large changes in the inventory level.

Back-to-back loan

A loan in which two companies in separate countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific time period and repay the other's currency at an agreed upon maturity.

Blanket inventory lien

A secured loan that gives the lender a lien against all the borrower's inventories.

Book inventory

The amount of money invested in inventory, as per a company’s
accounting records. It is comprised of the beginning inventory balance, plus the
cost of any receipts, less the cost of sold or scrapped inventory. It may be significantly
different from the actual on-hand inventory, if the two are not periodically

Bridge Loan

A short term loan to cover the immediate cash requirements until permanent financing is received.

Inventory Loan Image 2

Broker loan rate

Related: Call money rate.

Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).

Bullet loan

A bank term loan that calls for no amortization.

Commercial Business Loan (Credit Insurance)

An agreement between a creditor and a borrower, where the creditor has loaned an amount to the borrower for business purposes.

Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

Dealer loan

Overnight, collateralized loan made to a dealer financing his position by borrowing from a
money market bank.

Demand Loan

A loan which must be repaid in full on demand.

Distribution inventory

inventory intended for shipment to customers, usually
comprised of finished goods and service items.

dollar days (of inventory)

a measurement of the value of inventory for the time that inventory is held

Inventory Loan Image 3

Ending inventory

The dollar value or unit total of goods on hand at the end of an
accounting period.

Equivalent loan

Given the after-tax stream associated with a lease, the maximum amount of conventional
debt that the same period-by-period after-tax debt service stream is capable of supporting.

Farm Improvement and Marketing Cooperatives Loans Act

See here

Federal Home Loan Banks

The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The
Federal Home loan Banks play a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve Banks vis-à-vis
member commercial banks.

Finished goods inventory

Goods that have been completed by the manufacturing
process, or purchased in a complete form, but which have not yet been sold to

Finished goods inventory

Completed inventory items ready for shipment to

First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that
assigns the earliest inventory acquisition costs to cost of goods sold. The most recent inventory
acquisition costs are assumed to remain in ending inventory.

Fixed-rate loan

A loan on which the rate paid by the borrower is fixed for the life of the loan.

Fixed Rate Loan

loan for a fixed period of time with a fixed interest rate for the life of the loan.

Fluctuation inventory

Excess inventory kept on hand to provide a buffer against
forecasting errors.

Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)

A Congressionally chartered corporation that
purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and
securitizes these mortgages for sale into the capital markets.

Inventory Loan Image 4

Hedge inventory

Excess inventories kept on hand as a buffer against contingent

In-transit inventory

inventory currently situated between its shipment and delivery

Inactive inventory

Parts with no recent prior or forecasted usage.

Intercompany loan

loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation.


For companies: Raw materials, items available for sale or in the process of being made ready for
sale. They can be individually valued by several different means, including cost or current market value, and
collectively by FIFO, LIFO or other techniques. The lower value of alternatives is usually used to preclude
overstating earnings and assets.
For security firms: securities bought and held by a broker or dealer for resale.


Goods bought or manufactured for resale but as yet unsold, comprising raw materials, work-in-progress and finished goods.


The cost of the goods that a company has available for resale.


Goods that a firm stores in anticipation of its later sale or use as an input.


The cost of unsold goods that are held for sale in the ordinary course of business or
that will be used or consumed in the production of goods to be sold.


Those items included categorized as either raw materials, work-inprocess,
or finished goods, and involved in either the creation of products or service
supplies for customers.

Inventory adjustment

A transaction used to adjust the book balance of an inventory
record to the amount actually on hand.

Inventory Days

The number of days it would take to sell the ending balance in inventory at the
average rate of cost of goods sold per day. Calculated by dividing inventory by cost of goods sold
per day, which is cost of goods sold divided by 365.

Inventory diversion

The redirection of parts or finished goods away from their intended

Inventory issue

A transaction used to record the reduction in inventory from a location,
because of its release for processing or transfer to another location.

Inventory receipt

The arrival of an inventory delivery from a supplier or other
company location.

Inventory returns

inventory returned from a customer for any reason. This receipt
is handled differently from a standard inventory receipt, typically into an inspection
area, from which it may be returned to stock, reworked, or scrapped.

inventory shrinkage

A term describing the loss of products from inventory
due to shoplifting by customers, employee theft, damaged and
spoiled products that are thrown away, and errors in recording the purchase
and sale of products. A business should make a physical count and
inspection of its inventory to determine this loss.

Inventory Shrinkage

A shortfall between inventory based on actual physical counts and inventory
based on book records. This shortfall may be due to such factors as theft, breakage, loss, or
poor recordkeeping.

Inventory turnover

The ratio of annual sales to average inventory which measures the speed that inventory
is produced and sold. Low turnover is an unhealthy sign, indicating excess stocks and/or poor sales.


The number of times a company sold out and replaced its average stock of goods in a year. The formula is:
(Cost of goods sold) / (Average inventory (beginning inventory + ending)/2 )

Inventory turnover

The number of times per year that an entire inventory or a
subset thereof is used.

Inventory Turnover

Ratio of annual sales to inventory, which shows how many times the inventory of a firm is sold and replaced during an accounting period.

inventory turnover ratio

The cost-of-goods-sold expense for a given
period (usually one year) divided by the cost of inventories. The ratio
depends on how long products are held in stock on average before they
are sold. Managers should closely monitor this ratio.

Inventory Turnover Ratio

Provides a measure of how often a company's inventory is sold or
"turned over" during a period. It is calculated by dividing the sales
figure for the period by the book value of the inventory at the end of
the period.

inventory write-down

Refers to making an entry, usually at the close of a
period, to decrease the cost value of the inventories asset account in
order to recognize the lost value of products that cannot be sold at their
normal markups or will be sold below cost. A business compares the
recorded cost of products held in inventory against the sales value of the
products. Based on the lower-of-cost-or-market rule, an entry is made to
record the inventory write-down as an expense.

Jumbo loan

loans of $1 billion or more. Or, loans that exceed the statutory size limit eligible for purchase or
securitization by the federal agencies.

Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.

Last-In, First-Out (LIFO) Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that assigns the most recent inventory acquisition costs to cost of goods sold. The earliest inventory
acquisition costs are assumed to remain in ending inventory.

Loan amortization schedule

The schedule for repaying the interest and principal on a loan.

Loan Capital

Borrowed funds having a fixed interest rate.

Loan Covenants

Express stipulations included in loan agreements that are designed to monitor
corporate performance and restrict corporate acts, affording added protection to the lender.

Loan syndication

Group of banks sharing a loan. See: syndicate.

Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

Loans payable

Amounts that have been loaned to the company and that it still owes.

Maximum inventory

An inventory item’s budgeted maximum inventory level,
comprising its preset safety stock level and planned lot size.


The value of the products that a retailing or wholesaling company intends to resell for a profit.
In a manufacturing business, inventories would include finished goods, goods in process, raw materials, and parts and components that will go into the end product.

Minimum inventory

An inventory item’s budgeted minimum inventory level.

Moving average inventory method

An inventory costing methodology that calls for the re-calculation of the average cost of all parts in stock after every purchase.
Therefore, the moving average is the cost of all units subsequent to the latest purchase,
divided by their total cost.

Multicurrency loans

Give the borrower the possibility of drawing a loan in different currencies.

Multifamily loans

loans usually represented by conventional mortgages on multi-family rental apartments.

Negative Loan Covenants

loan covenants designed to limit a corporate borrower's behavior
in favor of the lender.

Net inventory

The current inventory balance, less allocated or reserved items.

Obsolete inventory

Parts not used in any current end product.

Operating Loan

A loan advanced under an operating line of credit.

Parallel loan

A process whereby two companies in different countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific period of time, and repay the other's currency at an agreed maturity for the purpose of reducing
foreign exchange risk. Also referred to as back-to-back loans.

Periodic inventory

A physical inventory count taken on a repetitive basis.

Periodic inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the inventory account is adjusted for the units sold only at the end of the period.

Perpetual inventory

A system that continually tracks all additions to and deletions
from inventory, resulting in more accurate inventory records and a running total for
the cost of goods sold in each period.

Perpetual inventory

A manual or automated inventory tracking system in which
a new inventory balance is computed continuously whenever new transactions

Perpetual inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the inventory account is adjusted for the units sold each time a sale is made.

personal loan

A lump sum that you borrow from a financial institution for a specified period of time. To repay the loan, you pay interest on the entire lump sum, and make payments on a scheduled basis.

Physical inventory

A manual count of the on-hand inventory.

Positive Loan Covenants

loan covenants expressing minimum and maximum financial measures
that must be met by a borrower.

Project loan certificate (PLC)

A primary program of Ginnie Mae for securitizing FHA-insured and coinsured
multifamily, hospital, and nursing home loans.

Project loan securities

Securities backed by a variety of FHA-insured loan types - primarily multi-family
apartment buildings, hospitals, and nursing homes.

Project loans

Usually FHA-insured and HUD-guaranteed mortgages on multiple-family housing complexes,
nursing homes, hospitals, and other development types.

Raw materials inventory

The total cost of all component parts currently in stock that
have not yet been used in work-in-process or finished goods production.

Reconciling inventory

The process of comparing book to actual inventory balances,
and adjusting for the difference in the book records.

Savings and Loan association

National- or state-chartered institution that accepts savings deposits and
invests the bulk of the funds thus received in mortgages.

Seasonal inventory

Very high inventory levels built up in anticipation of large
seasonal sales.

secured loan or line of credit

A lump sum of funds (loan), or a revolving source of credit with a pre-established limit (line of credit), for which the customer must provide collateral.

Self-liquidating loan

loan to finance current assets, The sale of the current assets provides the cash to repay
the loan.

Surplus inventory

Parts for which the on-hand quantity exceeds forecasted

Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.

Term Loan

A secured loan made to business concerns for a specific period (normally three to ten years). It is repaid with interest, usually with periodical payments.

Transaction loan

A loan extended by a bank for a specific purpose. In contrast, lines of credit and revolving
credit agreements involve loans that can be used for various purposes.

Variable rate loan

loan made at an interest rate that fluctuates based on a base interest rate such as the
Prime Rate or LIBOR.

vendor-managed inventory

a streamlined system of inventory
acquisition and management by which a supplier can
be empowered to monitor EDI inventory levels and provide
its customer company a proposed e-order and subsequent
shipment after electronic acceptance

Vendor-managed inventory

The direct management and ownership of selected
on-site inventory by suppliers.

Work-in-process inventory

inventory that has been partially converted through the
production process, but for which additional work must be completed before it can
be recorded as finished goods inventory.

Product risk

A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender has an unusual loan in production or
inventory but does not have a sale commitment at a prearranged price.







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