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Definition of Cramdown

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Cramdown

The ability of the bankruptcy court to confirm a plan of reorganization over the objections of
some classes of creditors.



Related Terms:

DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.


QMDM (quantitative marketability discount model)

model for calculating DLOM for minority interests r the discount rate


Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Accounts receivable turnover

The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
quickly customers pay their bills.


Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.



Asset classes

Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.


Asset-coverage test

A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
debt does not fall below a specified minimum.


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Asset turnover

The ratio of net sales to total assets.


Availability float

Checks deposited by a company that have not yet been cleared.


Baker Plan

A plan by U.S. Treasury Secretary James Baker under which 15 principal middle-income debtor
countries (the Baker 15) would undertake growth-oriented structural reforms, to be supported by increased
financing from the World Bank and continued lending from commercial banks.


Bankruptcy

State of being unable to pay debts. Thus, the ownership of the firm's assets is transferred from
the stockholders to the bondholders.


Bankruptcy cost view

The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt finaning.


Bankruptcy risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.


Bankruptcy view

The argument that expected bankruptcy costs preclude firms from being financed entirely
with debt.


Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.


Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.


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Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.


Confirmation

he written statement that follows any "trade" in the securities markets. confirmation is issued
immediately after a trade is executed. It spells out settlement date, terms, commission, etc.



Contingent pension liability

Under ERISA, the firm is liable to the plan participants for up to 39% of the net
worth of the firm.


Corporate financial planning

Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.


Cover

The purchase of a contract to offset a previously established short position.


Coverage ratios

Ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of
meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed charge coverage ratio.


Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for
dollars.


Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies


Covered Put

A put option position in which the option writer also is short the corresponding stock or has
deposited, in a cash account, cash or cash equivalents equal to the exercise of the option. This limits the
option writer's risk because money or stock is already set aside. In the event that the holder of the put option
decides to exercise the option, the writer's risk is more limited than it would be on an uncovered or naked put
option.


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Crossover rate

The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value.



Cumulative probability distribution

A function that shows the probability that the random variable will
attain a value less than or equal to each value that the random variable can take on.


Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.


Defined benefit plan

A pension plan in which the sponsor agrees to make specified dollar payments to
qualifying employees. The pension obligations are effectively the debt obligation of the plan sponsor.
Related: defined contribution plan


Defined contribution plan

A pension plan in which the sponsor is responsible only for making specified
contributions into the plan on behalf of qualifying participants. Related: defined benefit plan
Delayed issuance pool Refers to MBSs that at the time of issuance were collateralized by seasoned loans
originated prior to the MBS pool issue date.


Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the Long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the
holder.


Doctrine of sovereign immunity

Doctrine that says a nation may not be tried in the courts of another country
without its consent.


Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
employees.


Financial plan

A financial blueprint for the financial future of a firm.


Financial planning

The process of evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. It
includes attempting to make optimal decisions, projecting the consequences of these decisions for the firm in
the form of a financial plan, and then comparing future performance against that plan.


Fixed asset turnover ratio

The ratio of sales to fixed assets.


Fixed-charge coverage ratio

A measure of a firm's ability to meet its fixed-charge obligations: the ratio of
(net earnings before taxes plus interest charges paid plus long-term lease payments) to (interest charges paid
plus long-term lease payments).


Floor planning

Arrangement used to finance inventory. A finance company buys the inventory, which is then
held in trust by the user.


Forward cover

Purchase or sale of forward foreign currency in order to offset a known future cash flow.


Government bond

See: Government securities.


Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.


Government sponsored enterprises

Privately owned, publicly chartered entities, such as the Student Loan
Marketing Association, created by Congress to reduce the cost of capital for certain borrowing sectors of the
economy including farmers, homeowners, and students.


Government securities

Negotiable U.S. Treasury securities.


Insured plans

Defined benefit pension plans that are guaranteed by life insurance products. Related: noninsured plans


Interest coverage ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This
ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.


Interest coverage test

A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional long-term debt if the issuer's
interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum.


Inventory turnover

The ratio of annual sales to average inventory which measures the speed that inventory
is produced and sold. Low turnover is an unhealthy sign, indicating excess stocks and/or poor sales.


Legal bankruptcy

A legal proceeding for liquidating or reorganizing a business.


Liability

A financial obligation, or the cash outlay that must be made at a specific time to satisfy the
contractual terms of such an obligation.


Liability funding strategies

Investment strategies that select assets so that cash flows will equal or exceed
the client's obligations.


Liability swap

An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's liabilities so
as to provide a better match with its assets.


Limited liability

Limitation of possible loss to what has already been invested.


Limited-liability instrument

A security, such as a call option, in which the owner can only lose his initial
investment.


Long-term financial plan

Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


Limited-liability instrument

A security, such as a call option, in which the owner can only lose his initial investment.


Market overhang

The theory that in certain situations, institutions wish to sell their shares but postpone the
share sales because large orders under current market conditions would drive down the share price and that
the consequent threat of securities sales will tend to retard the rate of share price appreciation. Support for this
theory is largely anecdotal.


Marketability

A negotiable security is said to have good marketability if there is an active secondary market
in which it can easily be resold.


Materials requirement planning

Computer-based systems that plan backward from the production schedule
to make purchases in order to manage inventory levels.


Money purchase plan

A defined benefit contribution plan in which the participant contributes some part and
the firm contributes at the same or a different rate. Also called and individual account plan.


Non-insured plans

Defined benefit pension plans that are not guaranteed by life insurance products. Related:
insured plans


Nondiversifiability of human capital

The difficulty of diversifying one's human capital (the unique
capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort.


Normal probability distribution

A probability distribution for a continuous random variable that is forms a
symmetrical bell-shaped curve around the mean.


Overbought/oversold indicator

An indicator that attempts to define when prices have moved too far and too
fast in either direction and thus are vulnerable to reaction.


Overfunded pension plan

A pension plan that has a positive surplus (i.e., assets exceed liabilities).


Overlay strategy

A strategy of using futures for asset allocation by pension sponsors to avoid disrupting the
activities of money managers.


Overnight delivery risk

A risk brought about because differences in time zones between settlement centers
require that payment or delivery on one side of a transaction be made without knowing until the next day
whether the funds have been received in an account on the other side. Particularly apparent where delivery
takes place in Europe for payment in dollars in New York.


Overnight repo

A repurchase agreement with a term of one day.


Overperform

When a security is expected to appreciate at a rate faster than the overall market.


Overreaction hypothesis

The supposition that investors overreact to unanticipated news, resulting in
exaggerated movement in stock prices followed by corrections.


Overshooting

The tendency of a pool of MBSs to reflect an especially high rate or prepayments the first time
it crosses the threshold for refinancing, especially if two or more years have passed since the date of issue
without the WAC of the pool having crossed the refinancing threshold.


Oversubscribed issue

Investors are not able to buy all of the shares or bonds they want, so underwriters must
allocate the shares or bonds among investors. This occurs when a new issue is underpriced or in great demand
because of growth prospects.


Oversubscription privilege

In a rights issue, arrangement by which shareholders are given the right to apply
for any shares that are not taken up.


Over-the-counter market (OTC)

A decentralized market (as opposed to an exchange market) where
geographically dispersed dealers are linked together by telephones and computer screens. The market is for
securities not listed on a stock or bond exchange. The NASDAQ market is an OTC market for U.S. stocks.


Pension plan

A fund that is established for the payment of retirement benefits.


Plan for reorganization

A plan for reorganizing a firm during the Chapter 11 bankruptcy process.


Plan sponsors

The entities that establish pension plans, including private business entities acting for their
employees; state and local entities operating on behalf of their employees; unions acting on behalf of their
members; and individuals representing themselves.


Planned amortization class CMO

1) One class of CMO that carries the most stable cash flows and the
lowest prepayement risk of any class of CMO. Because of that stable cash flow, it is considered the least risky CMO.
2) A CMO bond class that stipulates cash-flow contributions to a sinking fund. With the PAC,
principal payments are directed to the sinking fund on a priority basis in accordance with a predetermined
payment schedule, with prior claim to the cash flows before other CMO classes. Similarly, cash flows
received by the trust in excess of the sinking fund requirement are also allocated to other bond classes. The
prepayment experience of the PAC is therefore very stable over a wide range of prepayment experience.


Planned capital expenditure program

Capital expenditure program as outlined in the corporate financial plan.


Planned financing program

Program of short-term and long-term financing as outlined in the corporate
financial plan.


Planning horizon

The length of time a model projects into the future.


Portfolio turnover rate

For an investment company, an annualized rate found by dividing the lesser of
purchases and sales by the average of portfolio assets.


Prepackaged bankruptcy

A bankruptcy in which a debtor and its creditors pre-negotiate a plan or
reorganization and then file it along with the bankruptcy petition.


Price discovery process

The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the
interactions of buyers and sellers.


Probability

The relative likelihood of a particular outcome among all possible outcomes.


Probability density function

The probability function for a continuous random variable.


Probability distribution

Also called a probability function, a function that describes all the values that the random variable can
take and the probability associated with each.


Probability function

A function that assigns a probability to each and every possible outcome.


Profitability index

The present value of the future cash flows divided by the initial investment. Also called
the benefit-cost ratio.


Profitability ratios

Ratios that focus on the profitability of the firm. Profit margins measure performance
with relation to sales. Rate of return ratios measure performance relative to some measure of size of the
investment.


Rally (recovery)

An upward movement of prices. Opposite of reaction.


Receivables turnover ratio

Total operating revenues divided by average receivables. Used to measure how
effectively a firm is managing its accounts receivable.


Reorganization

Creating a plan to restructure a debtor's business and restore its financial health.


Risk-adjusted profitability

A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a
certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.


Risk classes

Groups of projects that have approximately the same amount of risk.


Risk lover

A person willing to accept lower expected returns on prospects with higher amounts of risk.


Roll over

Reinvest funds received from a maturing security in a new issue of the same or a similar security.


Rollover

Most term loans in the Euromarket are made on a rollover basis, which means that the loan is
periodically repriced at an agreed spread over the appropriate, currently prevailing LIBO rate.


Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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