Financial Terms
Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

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Definition of Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC) Image 1

Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.

Related Terms:

Accretion (of a discount)

In portfolio accounting, a straight-line accumulation of capital gains on discount
bond in anticipation of receipt of par at maturity.

ad hoc discount

a price concession made under competitive pressure (real or imagined) that does not relate to quantity purchased

ADF (annuity discount factor)

the present value of a finite stream of cash flows for every beginning $1 of cash flow.

Articles of incorporation

Legal document establishing a corporation and its structure and purpose.

Bank discount basis

A convention used for quoting bids and offers for treasury bills in terms of annualized
yield , based on a 360-day year.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

An international bank headquartered in Basel, Switzerland, which
serves as a forum for monetary cooperation among several European central banks, the Bank of Japan, and the
U.S. Federal Reserve System. Founded in 1930 to handle the German payment of World War I reparations, it
now monitors and collects data on international banking activity and promulgates rules concerning
international bank regulation.

Canadian Deposit Insurance Corporation

Better known as CDIC, this is an organization which insures qualifying deposits and GICs at savings institutions, mainly banks and trust companys, which belong to the CDIC for amounts up to $60,000 and for terms of up to five years. Many types of deposits are not insured, such as mortgage-backed deposits, annuities of duration of more than five years, and mutual funds.

Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC) Image 2

Cash discount

An incentive offered to purchasers of a firm's product for payment within a specified time
period, such as ten days.

Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.

constant-growth dividend discount model

Version of the dividend discount model in which dividends grow at a constant rate.

Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.

Continuous Discounting

The process of calculating the present value of a stream of future
cash flows by discounting over a continuous period of time

Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)

A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
by U.S. stockholders, each of whom owns at least 10% of the voting power.


A legal "person" that is separate and distinct from its owners. A corporation is allowed to own
assets, incur liabilities, and sell securities, among other things.


A legal entity, organized under state laws, whose investors purchase
shares of stock as evidence of ownership in it. A corporation is a legal entity, which
eliminates much of the liability for the corporation’s actions from its investors.


Business owned by stockholders who are not personally
liable for the business’s liabilities.

Cost of sales

The manufacture or purchase price of goods sold in a period or the cost of providing a service.

Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.

Deep-discount bond

A bond issued with a very low coupon or no coupon and selling at a price far below par
value. When the bond has no coupon, it's called a zero coupon bond.

Differential disclosure

The practice of reporting conflicting or markedly different information in official
corporate statements including annual and quarterly reports and the 10-Ks and 10-Qs.

Disclaimer of opinion

An auditor's statement disclaiming any opinion regarding the company's financial


Additional information attached to a company’s financial statements, usually
as explanation for activities whose related transactions have influenced the
financial statements.

Discontinued operation

A business segment that has been or is planned to be closed or sold off.

Discontinued Operations

Net income and the gain or loss on disposal of a business segment whose assets and operations are clearly distinguishable from the other assets and operations of an entity.


Referring to the selling price of a bond, a price below its par value. Related: premium.


The percentage amount at which bonds sell below their par value. Also the percentage amount at which a currency sells on the forward market below its current rate on the spot market.

Discount bond

Debt sold for less than its principal value. If a discount bond pays no interest, it is called a
zero coupon bond.

Discount Bond

A bond with no coupons, priced below its face value; the return on this bond comes from the difference between its face value and its current price.

Discount curve

The curve of discount rates vs. maturity dates for bonds.

Discount factor

Present value of $1 received at a stated future date.

discount factor

Present value of a $1 future payment.

Discount period

The period during which a customer can deduct the discount from the net amount of the bill
when making payment.

discount rate

the rate of return on investment that would be required by a prudent investor to invest in an asset with a specific level risk. Also, a rate of return used to convert a monetary sum, payable or receivable in the future, into present value.

Discount rate

The interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges a bank to borrow funds when a bank is
temporarily short of funds. Collateral is necessary to borrow, and such borrowing is quite limited because the
Fed views it as a privilege to be used to meet short-term liquidity needs, and not a device to increase earnings.

Discount Rate

The rate of interest used to calculate the present value of a stream
of future cash flows

discount rate

the rate of return used to discount future cash
flows to their present value amounts; it should equal or
exceed an organization’s weighted average cost of capital

discount rate

Interest rate used to compute present values of future cash flows.

Discount Rate

The interest rate at which the Fed is prepared to loan reserves to commercial banks.

Discount Rate

A rate of return used to convert a monetary sum, payable or receivable in the future, into present value.

Discount securities

Non-interest-bearing money market instruments that are issued at a discount and
redeemed at maturity for full face value, e.g. U.S. Treasury bills.

Discount window

Facility provided by the Fed enabling member banks to borrow reserves against collateral
in the form of governments or other acceptable paper.

Discount Window

The Federal Reserve facility at which reserves are loaned to banks at the discount rate.

Discounted basis

Selling something on a discounted basis is selling below what its value will be at maturity,
so that the difference makes up all or part of the interest.

Discounted cash flow

A technique that determines the present value of future cash
flows by applying a rate to each periodic cash flow that is derived from the cost of
capital. Multiplying this discount by each future cash flow results in an amount that
is the present value of all the future cash flows.

Discounted Cash Flow

Techniques for establishing the relative worth of a future investment by discounting (at a required rate of return) the expected net cash flows from the project.

Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Future cash flows multiplied by discount factors to obtain present values.

Discounted cash flow (DCF)

A method of investment appraisal that discounts future cash flows to present value using a discount rate, which is the risk-adjusted cost of capital.

discounted cash flow (DCF)

Refers to a capital investment analysis technique
that discounts, or scales down, the future cash returns from an
investment based on the cost-of-capital rate for the business. In essence,
each future return is downsized to take into account the cost of capital
from the start of the investment until the future point in time when the
return is received. Present value (PV) is the amount resulting from discounting
the future returns. Present value is subtracted from the entry
cost of the investment to determine net present value (NPV). The net
present value is positive if the present value is more than the entry cost,
which signals that the investment would earn more than the cost-ofcapital
rate. If the entry cost is more than the present value, the net
present value is negative, which means that the investment would earn
less than the business’s cost-of-capital rate.

Discounted dividend model (DDM)

A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
present value of all expected future dividends.

Discounted payback period rule

An investment decision rule in which the cash flows are discounted at an
interest rate and the payback rule is applied on these discounted cash flows.


Calculating the present value of a future amount. The process is opposite to compounding.


The process of calculating the present value of a stream of future
cash flows


the process of reducing future cash flows to present value amounts


Calculating the present value of a future payment.


The process of finding the present value of a series of future cash flows. discounting is the reverse of compounding.

Discounting of Accounts Receivable

Short-term financing in which accounts receivable are used as collateral to secure a loan. The lender does not buy the accounts receivable but simply uses them as collateral for the loan. Also called pledging of accounts receivable.

Discouraged Worker

An unemployed person who gives up looking for work and so is no longer counted as in the labor force.

Discrete compounding

Compounding the time value of money for discrete time intervals.

Discrete Compounding

The process of adding interest to a principal plus interest amount
and calculating the resulting compound amount at specific
intervals, such as monthly or annually

discrete loss

a reduction in units that occurs at a specific
point in a production process

Discrete order picking

A picking method requiring the sequential completion of
each order before one begins picking the next order.

Discrete random variable

A random variable that can take only a certain specified set of discrete possible
values - for example, the positive integers 1, 2, 3, . . .

Discretionary account

Accounts over which an individual or organization, other than the person in whose
name the account is carried, exercises trading authority or control.

Discretionary cash flow

Cash flow that is available after the funding of all positive NPV capital investment
projects; it is available for paying cash dividends, repurchasing common stock, retiring debt, and so on.

discretionary cost

a cost that is periodically reviewed by a
decision maker in a process of determining whether it continues
to be in accord with ongoing policies; a cost that
arises from a management decision to fund an activity at
a specified cost amount for a specified period of time, generally
one year; a cost that can be reduced to zero in the
short run if necessity so dictates

Discretionary Policy

A policy that is a conscious, considered response to each situation as it arises. Contrast with policy rule.

Discriminant analysis

A statistical process that links the probability of default to a specified set of financial ratios.

dividend discount model

Computation of today’s stock price which states that share value equals the present value of all expected future dividends.

Dividend discount model (DDM)

A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on the
present value of the expected cash flows.

DLOC (discount for lack of control)

an amount or percentage deducted from a pro rata share of the value of 100% of an equity interest in a business, to reflect the absence of some or all of the powers of control.

DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.

Documented discount notes

Commercial paper backed by normal bank lines plus a letter of credit from a
bank stating that it will pay off the paper at maturity if the borrower does not. Such paper is also referred to as
LOC (letter of credit) paper.

Domestic market

Part of a nation's internal market representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading
securities of entities domiciled within that nation. Compare external market and foreign market.

Edge corporations

Specialized banking institutions, authorized and chartered by the Federal Reserve Board
in the U.S., which are allowed to engage in transactions that have a foreign or international character. They
are not subject to any restrictions on interstate banking. Foreign banks operating in the U.S. are permitted to
organize and own and Edge corporation.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal institution that insures bank deposits.

Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.

Forward discount

A currency trades at a forward discount when its forward price is lower than its spot price.

fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)

A Congressionally chartered corporation that
purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and
securitizes these mortgages for sale into the capital markets.

Gross Domestic Product

Total output of final goods and services produced within a country during a year.

Gross domestic product (GDP)

The market value of goods and services produced over time including the
income of foreign corporations and foreign residents working in the U.S., but excluding the income of U.S.
residents and corporations overseas.

Gross sales

The total sales recorded prior to sales discounts and returns.


Process by which a company receives its Articles of Incorporation allowing it to operate as a corporation.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - IBRD or World Bank

international Bank for Reconstruction and Development makes loans at nearly conventional terms to countries for projects of high
economic priority.

International Banking Facility (IBF)

international Banking Facility. A branch that an American bank
establishes in the United States to do Eurocurrency business.

International bonds

A collective term that refers to global bonds, Eurobonds, and foreign bonds.

International Depository Receipt (IDR)

A receipt issued by a bank as evidence of ownership of one or more
shares of the underlying stock of a foreign corporation that the bank holds in trust. The advantage of the IDR
structure is that the corporation does not have to comply with all the regulatory issuing requirements of the
foreign country where the stock is to be traded. The U.S. version of the IDR is the American Depository
Receipt (ADR).

International diversification

The attempt to reduce risk by investing in the more than one nation. By
diversifying across nations whose economic cycles are not perfectly correlated, investors can typically reduce
the variability of their returns.

International finance subsidiary

A subsidiary incorporated in the U.S., usually in Delaware, whose sole
purpose was to issue debentures overseas and invest the proceeds in foreign operations, with the interest paid
to foreign bondholders not subject to U.S. withholding tax. The elimination of the corporate withholding tax
has ended the need for this type of subsidiary.

International Fisher effect

States that the interest rate differential between two countries should be an
unbiased predictor of the future change in the spot rate.

international Fisher effect

Theory that real interest rates in all countries should be equal, with differences in nominal rates reflecting differences in expected inflation.

International fund

A mutual fund that can invest only outside the United States.

international fund

A mutual fund that can invest in securities issued anywhere outside of Canada.

International market

Related: See external market.

International Monetary Fund

An organization founded in 1944 to oversee exchange arrangements of
member countries and to lend foreign currency reserves to members with short-term balance of payment

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Organization originally established to manage the postwar fixed exchange rate system.

International Monetary Market (IMM)

A division of the CME established in 1972 for trading financial
futures. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).

International Reserves

See foreign exchange reserves.







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