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Definition of Cost-benefit ratio
The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called
Capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
A method of costing in which all fixed and variable production costs are charged to products or services using an allocation base.
a cost accumulation and reporting
A methodology under which all manufacturing costs are assigned
Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.
Clause causing repayment of a debt, if specified events occur or are not met.
Belief that an effort to keep unemployment below its natural rate results in an accelerating inflation.
Coverage against accidental death usually payable in addition to base amount of coverage.
A ratio computed by dividing annual
An approximate measure of the liability of a plan in the event of a
Also called the quick ratio, the ratio of current assets minus inventories, accruals, and prepaid
A ratio that shows how well a company could pay its current debts using only its most liquid or “quick” assets. It’s a more pessimistic—but also realistic—measure of safety than the current ratio, because it ignores sluggish, hard-toliquidate current assets like inventory and notes receivable. Here’s the formula:
See quick ratio
The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
A method of costing that uses cost pools to accumulate the cost of significant business activities and then assigns the costs from the cost pools to products or services based on cost drivers.
activity based costing (ABC)
A relatively new method advocated for the
activity-based costing (ABC)
a process using multiple cost drivers to predict and allocate costs to products and services;
Activity-based costing (ABC)
A cost allocation system that compiles costs and assigns
The actual expenditure made to acquire an asset, which includes the supplierinvoiced
actual cost system
a valuation method that uses actual direct
Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations
Cash flow provided by operating
Agency cost view
The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in
The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal.
Aggressive Cost Capitalization
cost capitalization that stretches the flexibility within generally
Total costs, explicit and implicit.
cost of a security adjusted for the amortization of any purchase premium or
a quality control cost incurred for monitoring
The signal-to-noise ratio of an analyst's forecasts. The ratio of alpha to residual standard
Articles of incorporation
Legal document establishing a corporation and its structure and purpose.
Asset activity ratios
ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.
The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.
asset turnover ratio
A broad-gauge ratio computed by dividing annual
attribute-based costing (ABC II)
an extension of activitybased costing using cost-benefit analysis (based on increased customer utility) to choose the product attribute
Automatic Benefits Payment
Automatic payment of moneys derived from a benefit.
Average-Cost Inventory Method
The inventory cost-flow assumption that assigns the average
Average cost of capital
A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
costs that are identifiable with and able to be influenced by decisions made at the business
a streamlined cost accounting method that speeds up, simplifies, and reduces accounting effort in an environment that minimizes inventory balances, requires
Bankruptcy cost view
The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
Basic Earnings Power Ratio
Percentage of earnings relative to total assets; indication of how
A cost that is incurred when a group of products or services are produced,
a cost that is caused by a group of things
An instruction that pays a cash amount upon the occurrence of a specific event.
Benefit Ratio Method
The proportion of unemployment benefits paid to a company’s
The amount of cash payable on a benefit.
Benefit Wage Ratio Method
The proportion of total taxable wages for laid off
a listing of service departments in an order that begins with the one providing the most service
a planned expenditure
cafeteria plan a “menu” of fringe benefit options that include
cash or nontaxable benefits
Canadian Deposit Insurance Corporation
Better known as CDIC, this is an organization which insures qualifying deposits and GICs at savings institutions, mainly banks and trust companys, which belong to the CDIC for amounts up to $60,000 and for terms of up to five years. Many types of deposits are not insured, such as mortgage-backed deposits, annuities of duration of more than five years, and mutual funds.
Capital Cost Allowance (CCA)
The annual depreciation expense allowed by the Canadian Income Tax Act.
Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
a condition that exists when there is an
Limit set on the amount of funds available for investment.
capitalization of costs
When a cost is recorded originally as an increase
Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
Capitalized Cost An expenditure or accrual that is reported as an asset to be amortized against
costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.
the total variable cost of carrying one unit of
The cost of holding inventory, which can include insurance,
costs of maintaining current assets, including opportunity cost of capital.
The amount of cash expended.
Cash flow coverage ratio
The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
Cash flow from operations
A firm's net cash inflow resulting directly from its regular operations
Cash Flow–to–Income Ratio (CFI)
Adjusted cash flow provided by continuing operations
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS
A section on the cash-flow Stockholders’ equity statement that shows how much cash came into a company and how much went out during the normal course of business.
The proportion of a firm's assets held as cash.
ratio of cash and cash equivalents to liabilities; in the case of a bank, the ratio of cash to total deposit liabilities.
a cost related either to the long-term investment
Common stock ratios
ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
company cost of capital
Expected rate of return demanded by investors in a company, determined by the average risk of the company’s assets and operations.
A single centralized account into which funds collected at regional locations
System whereby customers make payments to a regional collection center which transfers funds to
Movement of cash from different lockbox locations into a single concentration
A review of all engineering documentation used as the basis
Verifying that a delivered product matches authorizing
contribution margin ratio
the proportion of each revenue dollar remaining after variable costs have been covered;
a cost over which a manager has the ability to authorize incurrence or directly influence magnitude
Controlled foreign corporation (CFC)
A foreign corporation whose voting stock is more than 50% owned
Refers to the sum of manufacturing direct labor and overhead
the total of direct labor and overhead cost;
The number of shares of common stock that the security holder will receive from
A legal "person" that is separate and distinct from its owners. A corporation is allowed to own
A legal entity, organized under state laws, whose investors purchase
Business owned by stockholders who are not personally
A resource sacrificed or forgone to achieve a specific objective (Horngren et al.), defined
the cash or cash equivalent value necessary to attain an
The expense incurred to create and sell a product or service. If a product is not
a discipline that focuses on techniques or
Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB)
a body established by Congress in 1970 to promulgate cost accounting
the approach to product costing that determines
the assignment, using some reasonable basis,
the practice of finding acceptable alternatives
An asset’s purchase price, plus costs associated with the purchase, like installation fees, taxes, etc.
The idea that fixed costs and variable costs react differently to changes in the volume of
The calculation and comparison of the costs and benefits of a policy or project.
cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the
relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
a responsibility center in which the manager has
A division or unit of an organization that is responsible for controlling costs.
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