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Average cost of capital

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Definition of Average cost of capital

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Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.



Related Terms:

Weighted average cost of capital

Expected return on a portfolio of all the firm's securities. Used as a hurdle
rate for capital investment.


Weighted average cost of capital

See cost of capital.


weighted-average cost of capital

Weighted means that the proportions of
debt capital and equity capital of a business are used to calculate its
average cost of capital. This key benchmark rate depends on the interest
rate(s) on its debt and the ROE goal established by a business. This is a
return-on-capital rate and can be applied either on a before-tax basis or
an after-tax basis. A business should earn at least its weighted-average
rate on the capital invested in its assets. The weighted-average cost-ofcapital
rate is used as the discount rate to calculate the present value
(PV) of specific investments.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)

The weighted average of the costs of the capital components
(debt, preferred stock, and common stock)


weighted average cost of capital

a composite of the cost of the various sources of funds that comprise a firmís capital structure; the minimum rate of return that must be earned on new investments so as not to dilute shareholder value



weighted-average cost of capital (WACC)

Expected rate of return on a portfolio of all the firmís securities, adjusted for tax savings due to interest payments.


Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)

A weighted average of the component costs of debt, preferred shares, and common equity. Also called the composite cost of capital.


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WACC

See: Weighted average cost of capital.


discount rate

the rate of return used to discount future cash
flows to their present value amounts; it should equal or
exceed an organizationís weighted average cost of capital


optimal mix of capital

the combination of capital sources at which the lowest weighted average cost of capital is achieved


WACC

See weighted-average cost of capital.


Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Agency cost view

The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in
which total agency costs are at a minimum with some, but less than 100%, debt financing.


Agency costs

The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal.


All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.


Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.


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Average

An arithmetic mean of selected stocks intended to represent the behavior of the market or some
component of it. One good example is the widely quoted Dow Jones Industrial average, which adds the
current prices of the 30 DJIA's stocks, and divides the results by a predetermined number, the divisor.


Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.



Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.


Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).


Average life

Also referred to as the weighted-average life (WAL). The average number of years that each
dollar of unpaid principal due on the mortgage remains outstanding. average life is computed as the weighted average time to the receipt of all future cash flows, using as the weights the dollar amounts of the principal
paydowns.


Average maturity

The average time to maturity of securities held by a mutual fund. Changes in interest rates
have greater impact on funds with longer average life.


Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
large number of trades.


Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.


Average tax rate

Taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.


Bankruptcy cost view

The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt finaning.


Capital

Money invested in a firm.


Capital account

Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.



Capital allocation

decision Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.


Capital budget

A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.


Capital budgeting

The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.


Capital expenditures

Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.


Capital flight

The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.


Capital gain

When a stock is sold for a profit, it's the difference between the net sales price of securities and
their net cost, or original basis. If a stock is sold below cost, the difference is a capital loss.


Capital gains yield

The price change portion of a stock's return.


Capital lease

A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.


Capital loss

The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sale price, if that security is sold at a loss.


Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).


Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.


Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.


Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.


Capital rationing

Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital
budget.


Capital structure

The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially
the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.


Capital surplus

Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.


Capitalization

The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.


Capitalization method

A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a
number of the largest-capitalized names in the index stock in proportion to their capitalization.


Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.


Capitalization table

A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization
ratios.


Capitalized

Recorded in asset accounts and then depreciated or amortized, as is appropriate for expenditures
for items with useful lives greater than one year.


Capitalized interest

Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.


Carring costs

costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.


Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Cost of capital

The required return for a capital budgeting project.


Cost of carry

Related: Net financing cost


Cost of funds

Interest rate associated with borrowing money.


Cost of lease financing

A lease's internal rate of return.


Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.


Cost-benefit ratio

The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called
the profitability index.


Dedicated capital

Total par value (number of shares issued, multiplied by the par value of each share). Also
called dedicated value.


Dow Jones industrial average

This is the best known U.S.index of stocks. It contains 30 stocks that trade on
the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest
U.S.companies are performing. There are thousands of investment indexes around the world for stocks,
bonds, currencies and commodities.


Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.


Equivalent annual cost

The equivalent cost per year of owning an asset over its entire life.


Execution costs

The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have
existed in the absence of a trade, which can be further divided into market impact costs and market timing
costs.


Financial distress costs

Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
implied costs associated with impaired ability to do business (indirect costs).


Fixed cost

A cost that is fixed in total for a given period of time and for given production levels.


Friction costs

costs, both implied and direct, associated with a transaction. Such costs include time, effort,
money, and associated tax effects of gathering information and making a transaction.


Hard capital rationing

capital rationing that under no circumstances can be violated.


Human capital

The unique capabilities and expertise of individuals.


Incremental costs and benefits

costs and benefits that would occur if a particular course of action were
taken compared to those that would occur if that course of action were not taken.


Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.


Issued share capital

Total amount of shares that are in issue. Related: outstanding shares.


Legal capital

Value at which a company's shares are recorded in its books.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Market capitalization

The total dollar value of all outstanding shares. Computed as shares times current
market price. It is a measure of corporate size.


Market capitalization rate

Expected return on a security. The market-consensus estimate of the appropriate
discount rate for a firm's cash flows.


Market impact costs

Also called price impact costs, the result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession.


Market timing costs

costs that arise from price movement of the stock during the time of the transaction
which is attributed to other activity in the stock.


Moving average

Used in charts and technical analysis, the average of security or commodity prices
constructed in a period as short as a few days or as Long as several years and showing trends for the latest
interval. As each new variable is included in calculating the average, the last variable of the series is deleted.


Net financing cost

Also called the cost of carry or, simply, carry, the difference between the cost of financing
the purchase of an asset and the asset's cash yield. Positive carry means that the yield earned is greater than
the financing cost; negative carry means that the financing cost exceeds the yield earned.


Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.


Nondiversifiability of human capital

The difficulty of diversifying one's human capital (the unique
capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort.


Opportunity cost of capital

Expected return that is foregone by investing in a project rather than in
comparable financial securities.


Opportunity costs

The difference in the performance of an actual investment and a desired investment
adjusted for fixed costs and execution costs. The performance differential is a consequence of not being able
to implement all desired trades. Most valuable alternative that is given up.


Other capital

In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital
transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It
is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from
country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most non-negotiable instruments of a
year or more like bank loans and mortgages. Other short-term capital includes financial assets of less than a
year such as currency, deposits, and bills.


Outstanding share capital

Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held in the company's treasury.


Pecking-order view (of capital structure)

The argument that external financing transaction costs, especially
those associated with the problem of adverse selection, create a dynamic environment in which firms have a
preference, or pecking-order of preferred sources of financing, when all else is equal. Internally generated
funds are the most preferred, new debt is next, debt-equity hybrids are next, and new equity is the least
preferred source.


Perfect capital market

A market in which there are never any arbitrage opportunities.


Perfect market view (of capital structure)

Analysis of a firm's capital structure decision, which shows the
irrelevance of capital structure in a perfect capital market.


Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.


Pie model of capital structure

A model of the debt/equity ratio of the firms, graphically depicted in slices of
a pie that represent the value of the firm in the capital markets.


Planned capital expenditure program

capital expenditure program as outlined in the corporate financial plan.


Price impact costs

Related: market impact costs


Pro forma capital structure analysis

A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.


Real capital

Wealth that can be represented in financial terms, such as savings account balances, financial
securities, and real estate.


Replacement cost

cost to replace a firm's assets.


Round-trip transactions costs

costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact
costs, and taxes.


Search costs

costs associated with locating a counterparty to a trade, including explicit costs (such as
advertising) and implicit costs (such as the value of time). Related:information costs.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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