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Competitive bidding

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Definition of Competitive bidding

Competitive Bidding Image 1

Competitive bidding

A securities offering process in which securities firms submit competing bids to the
issuer for the securities the issuer wishes to sell.



Related Terms:

Competitive offering

An offering of securities through competitive bidding.


Negotiated sale

Situation in which the terms of an offering are determined by negotiation between the issuer
and the underwriter rather than through competitive bidding by underwriting groups.


Competitive Advantage

The strategies, skills, knowledge, resources or competencies that differentiate a business from its competitors.


Noncompetitive bid

In a Treasury auction, bidding for a specific amount of securities at the price, whatever it
may turn out to be, equal to the average price of the accepted competitive bids.


Perfectly competitive financial markets

Markets in which no trader has the power to change the price of
goods or services. Perfect capital markets are characterized by the following conditions: 1) trading is costless,
and access to the financial markets is free, 2) information about borrowing and lending opportunities is freely
available, 3) there are many traders, and no single trader can have a significant impact on market prices.



Available-for-Sale Security

A debt or equity security not classified as a held-to-maturity security or a trading security. Can be classified as a current or noncurrent investment depending on the intended holding period.


Best-efforts sale

A method of securities distribution/ underwriting in which the securities firm agrees to sell
as much of the offering as possible and return any unsold shares to the issuer. As opposed to a guaranteed or
fixed price sale, where the underwriter agrees to sell a specific number of shares (with the securities firm
holding any unsold shares in its own account if necessary).


Competitive Bidding Image 1

Closing sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to reduce or eliminate a long position in a stock,
or a given series of options.


Conditional Sale

A type of agreement to sell whereby a seller retains title to goods sold and delivered to a purchaser until full payment has been made.


Conditional Sale Agreement

An agreement entered into between a conditional buyer and a conditional seller setting out the terms under which goods change hands.


Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.


Cost of sales

The manufacture or purchase price of goods sold in a period or the cost of providing a service.


Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.


Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.


Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.


Competitive Bidding Image 2

Dual syndicate equity offering

An international equity placement where the offering is split into two
tranches - domestic and foreign - and each tranche is handled by a separate lead manager.


Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.



Forward sale

A method for hedging price risk which involves an agreement between a lender and an investor
to sell particular kinds of loans at a specified price and future time.


Gain-on-Sale Accounting

Up-front gain recognized from the securitization and sale of a pool
of loans. Profit is recorded for the excess of the sales price and the present value of the estimated
interest income that is expected to be received on the loans above the amounts funded on the loans
and the present value of the interest agreed to be paid to the buyers of the loan-backed securities.


Gross sales

The total sales recorded prior to sales discounts and returns.


Initial Public Offering

A firms first offering of its shares to the investment public, after registration requirements of the various securities regulators have been met.


Initial public offering (IPO)

A company's first sale of stock to the public. Securities offered in an IPO are
often, but not always, those of young, small companies seeking outside equity capital and a public market for
their stock. Investors purchasing stock in IPOs generally must be prepared to accept very large risks for the
possibility of large gains. IPO's by investment companies (closed-end funds) usually contain underwriting
fees which represent a load to buyers.


initial public offering (IPO)

First offering of stock to the general public.


Installment sale

The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments).


Limitation on merger, consolidation, or sale

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to
merge or consolidate with another firm.


Limitation on sale-and-leaseback

A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to enter into
sale and lease-back transactions.


Competitive Bidding Image 3

Negotiated certificate of deposit

A large-denomination CD, generally $1MM or more, that can be sold but
cannot be cashed in before maturity.



Negotiated markets

Markets in which each transaction is separately negotiated between buyer and seller (i.e.
an investor and a dealer).


Negotiated offering

An offering of securities for which the terms, including underwriters' compensation,
have been negotiated between the issuer and the underwriters.


negotiated transfer price

an intracompany charge for goods
or services set through a process of negotiation between
the selling and purchasing unit managers


Net sales

Total revenue, less the cost of sales returns, allowances, and discounts.


NET SALES (revenue)

The amount sold after customers’ returns, sales discounts, and other allowances are taken away from
gross sales. (Companies usually just show the net sales amount on their income statements, omitting returns, allowances, and the like.)


NUMBER OF DAYS SALES IN RECEIVABLES

(also called average collection period). The number of days of net sales that are tied up in credit sales (accounts receivable) that haven’t been collected yet.


Offering memorandum

A document that outlines the terms of securities to be offered in a private placement.


Offering Memorandum

A "prosperous-like" document providing detailed descriptions of a company's past, present, and prospective business operations. It is normally prepared for the use of potential purchasers of securities offered under the seed capital or private placement prospectus exemptions.


Opening sale

A transaction in which the seller's intention is to create or increase a short position in a given
series of options.


percentage of sales models

Planning model in which sales forecasts are the driving variables and most other variables are
proportional to sales.


point of sale (POS)

The terminal at which a customer uses his/her debit card to make a direct payment transaction. See also Interac Direct Payment.


Price/sales ratio (PS Ratio)

Determined by dividing current stock price by revenue per share (adjusted for stock splits).
Revenue per share for the P/S ratio is determined by dividing revenue for past 12 months by number of shares
outstanding.


Primary offering

A firm selling some of its own newly issued shares to investors.


Public offering

The sale of registered securities by the issuer (or the underwriters acting in the interests of the
issuer) in the public market. Also called public issue.


Public offering

The sale of new securities to the investing public.


Purchase and sale

A method of securities distribution in which the securities firm purchases the securities
from the issuer for its own account at a stated price and then resells them, as contrasted with a best-efforts sale.


RATIO OF NET INCOME TO NET SALES

A ratio that shows how much net income (profit) a company made on each dollar of net sales. Here’s the formula:
(Net income) / (Net sales)


RATIO OF NET SALES TO NET INCOME

A ratio that shows how much a company had to collect in net sales to make a dollar of profit. Figure it this way:
(Net sales) / (Net income)


Reoffering yield

In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds
to investors.


return on sales

This ratio equals net income divided by sales revenue.


Rights offering

Issuance of "rights" to current shareholders allowing them to purchase additional shares,
usually at a discount to market price. Shareholders who do not exercise these rights are usually diluted by the
offering. Rights are often transferable, allowing the holder to sell them on the open market to others who may
wish to exercise them. Rights offerings are particularly common to closed end funds, which cannot otherwise
issue additional common stock.


Sale and lease-back

sale of an existing asset to a financial institution that then leases it back to the user.
Related: lease.


Sale and Leaseback

An agreement in which the owner of a property sells that property to a person or institution and then leases it back again for an agreed period and rental.


Sales

Amounts earned by the company from the sale of merchandise or services; often used interchangeably with the term revenue.


Sales allowance

A reduction in a price that is allowed by the seller, due to a problem
with the sold product or service.


Sales charge

The fee charged by a mutual fund when purchasing shares, usually payable as a commission to
marketing agent, such as a financial advisor, who is thus compensated for his assistance to a purchaser. It
represents the difference, if any, between the share purchase price and the share net asset value.


Sales discount

A reduction in the price of a product or service that is offered by the
seller in exchange for early payment by the buyer.


Sales discounts

A contra account that offsets revenue. It represents the amount of the discounts for early payment allowed on sales.


Sales forecast

A key input to a firm's financial planning process. External sales forecasts are based on
historical experience, statistical analysis, and consideration of various macroeconomic factors.


Sales journal

A journal used to record the transactions that result in a credit to sales.


Sales mix

The mix of product/services offered by the business, each of which may be aimed at different customers, with each product/service having different prices and costs.


sales mix

the relative combination of quantities of sales of the various products that make up the total sales of a company


Sales returns

A contra account that offsets revenue. It represents the amount of sales made that were later returned.


Sales Revenue Revenue recognized from the sales of products as opposed to the provision of

services.


Sales Tax

A tax levied as a percentage of retail sales.


Sales-type lease

An arrangement whereby a firm leases its own equipment, such as IBM leasing its own
computers, thereby competing with an independent leasing company.


Sales-type Lease

Lease accounting used by a manufacturer who is also a lessor. Up-front gross
profit is recorded for the excess of the present value of the lease payments to be received across
a lease term over the cost to manufacture the leased equipment. Interest income also is recognized
on the lease receivable as it is earned over the lease term.


Sales value at split-off

A cost allocation methodology that allocates joint costs to joint
products in proportion to their relative sales values at the split-off point.


sales value at split-off allocation

a method of assigning joint cost to joint products that uses the relative sales values of the products at the split-off point as the proration basis; use of this method requires that all joint products
are salable at the split-off point


seasoned offering

sale of securities by a firm that is already publicly traded.


Short sale

Selling a security that the seller does not own but is committed to repurchasing eventually. It is
used to capitalize on an expected decline in the security's price.


Short sale, short position

The sale of a security or financial instrument not
owned, in anticipation of a price decline and making a profit by purchasing the
instrument later at a lower price, and then delivering the instrument to
complete the sale. See Long position.


Substitute sale

A method for hedging price risk that utilizes debt-market instruments, such as interest rate
futures, or that involves selling borrowed securities as the primary assets.


Swap sale

Also called a swap assignment, a transaction that ends one counterparty's role in an interest rate
swap by substituting a new counterparty whose credit is acceptable to the other original counterparty.


Terms of sale

Conditions on which a firm proposes to sell its goods services for cash or credit.


terms of sale

Credit, discount, and payment terms offered on a sale.


Wholesale mortgage banking

The purchasing of loans originated by others, with the servicing rights
released to the buyer.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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