Financial Terms
Tax deferral option

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Definition of Tax deferral option

Tax Deferral Option Image 1

Tax deferral option

The feature of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code that the capital gains tax on an asset is
payable only when the gain is realized by selling the asset.

Related Terms:

Abandonment option

The option of terminating an investment earlier than originally planned.

After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.

After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

American option

An option that may be exercised at any time up to and including the expiration date.
Related: European option

American option

An option that can be exercised any time until its
expiration date. Contrast with European option.

American-style option

An option contract that can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and
the expiration date. Most exchange-traded options are American style.

Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.

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Asian option

option based on the average price of the asset during the life of the option.

Asymmetric taxes

A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.

Average tax rate

taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.

average tax rate

Total taxes owed divided by total income.

Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.

Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.

Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.

Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.

Binomial option pricing model

An option pricing model in which the underlying asset can take on only two
possible, discrete values in the next time period for each value that it can take on in the preceding time period.

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Black-Scholes option-pricing model

A model for pricing call options based on arbitrage arguments that uses
the stock price, the exercise price, the risk-free interest rate, the time to expiration, and the standard deviation
of the stock return.

Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.

cafeteria plan a “menu” of fringe benefit options that include

cash or nontaxable benefits

Call an option

To exercise a call option.

Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.

Call Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to buy an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date

call option

Right to buy an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.

Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

Compound option

option on an option.

Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.

Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.

Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies

Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.

Current Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is based on
taxable income.

Current Tax Payment Act of 1943

A federal Act requiring employers to withhold income taxes from employee pay.

Dealer options

Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed
securities dealers.

Deferred Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is the result
of current-period originations and reversals of temporary differences.

Deferred Tax Asset

Future tax benefit that results from (1) the origination of a temporary difference
that causes pretax book income to be less than taxable income or (2) a loss, credit, or other
carryforward. Future tax benefits are realized on the reversal of deductible temporary differences
or the offsetting of a loss carryforward against taxable income or a tax-credit carryforward against
the current tax provision.

Deferred Tax Liability

Future tax obligation that results from the origination of a temporary
difference that causes pretax book income to exceed taxable income.

Deferred taxes

A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to cover tax liabilities that have not yet been paid.

Delivery options

The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality
option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options make the buyer uncertain of which
Treasury Bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered.

Depreciation tax shield

The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment.

depreciation tax shield

Reduction in taxes attributable to the depreciation allowance.

Double-tax agreement

Agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.

Doubling option

A sinking fund provision that may allow repurchase of twice the required number of bonds
at the sinking fund call price.

Down-and-in option

Barrier option that comes into existence if asset price hits a barrier.

Down-and-out option

Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.

earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses—but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

An earningsbased measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. Actually consists of working
capital provided by operations before interest and taxes.

EBDDT - Earnings before depreciation and deferred taxes

This measure is used principally by
firms in the real estate industry, with the exception of real estate investment trusts, which typically
do not pay taxes.

Effective Tax Rate

The total tax provision divided by pretax book income from continuing

Elasticity of an option

Percentage change in the value of an option given a 1% change in the value of the
option's underlying stock.

Electronic Federal Tax Payment Systems (EFTPS)

An electronic funds transfer system used by businesses to remit taxes to the government.

Embedded option

An option that is part of the structure of a bond that provides either the bondholder or
issuer the right to take some action against the other party, as opposed to a bare option, which trades
separately from any underlying security.

Equity options

Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock.

Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

Escalating Price Option

A nonqualified stock option that uses a sliding scale for
the option price that changes in concert with a peer group index.

European option

option that may be exercised only at the expiration date. Related: american option.

European option

An option that can be exercised only on its expiration date.
Contrast with American option.

European-style option

An option contract that can only be exercised on the expiration date.

Exercising the option

The act buying or selling the underlying asset via the option contract.

Exit Options

A variety of options available to an investor to recover their invested capital and the return on their investment.

Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)

A federal Act requiring employers to pay a tax on the wages paid to their employees, which is then used to create a
pool of funds to be used for unemployment benefits.

Foreign currency option

An option that conveys the right to buy or sell a specified amount of foreign
currency at a specified price within a specified time period.

Foreign tax credit

Home country credit against domestic income tax for foreign taxes paid on foreign
derived earnings.

Futures option

An option on a futures contract. Related: options on physicals.

Garmen-Kohlhagen option pricing model

A widely used model for pricing foreign currency options.

Greenshoe option

option that allows the underwriter for a new issue to buy and resell additional shares.

Heavenly Parachute Stock Option

A nonqualified stock option that allows a deceased option holder’s estate up to three years in which to exercise his or her

Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.

Incentive Stock Option

An option to purchase company stock that is not taxable
to the employee at the time it is granted nor at the time when the employee
eventually exercises the option to buy stock.


What the business paid to the IRS.

Income tax

A government tax on the income earned by an individual or corporation.

Income Tax Expense

See income tax provision.

Income Tax Provision

The expense deduction from pretax book income reported on the
income statement. It consists of both current income tax expense and deferred income tax
expense. The terms income tax expense and income tax provision are used interchangeably.

Index and Option Market (IOM)

A division of the CME established in 1982 for trading stock index
products and options. Related: Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME).

Index option

A call or put option based on a stock market index.

Indirect Taxes

taxes paid by consumers when they buy goods and services. A sales tax is an example.

Inflation Tax

The loss in purchasing power due to inflation eroding the real value of financial assets such as cash.

Interest equalization tax

tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.

Interest Option

One of several investment accounts in which your premiums may be invested within your life insurance policy.

Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.

interest tax shield

tax savings resulting from deductibility of interest payments.

Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

Investment tax credit

Proportion of new capital investment that can be used to reduce a company's tax bill
(abolished in 1986).

Investment Tax Credit

A reduction in taxes offered to firms to induce them to increase investment spending.

Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).

Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.

Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill

Liquid yield option note (LYON)

Zero-coupon, callable, putable, convertible bond invented by Merrill Lynch & Co.

Lookback option

An option that allows the buyer to choose as the option strike price any price of the
underlying asset that has occurred during the life of the option. If a call, the buyer will choose the minimal
price, whereas if a put, the buyer will choose the maximum price. This option will always be in the money.

Margin requirement (Options)

The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.

Margin Tax Rate

The tax rate applicable to the last unit of income.

Marginal tax rate

The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.

marginal tax rate

Additional taxes owed per dollar of additional income.

Marginal Tax Rate

Percent of an increase in income paid in tax.

Multi-option financing facility

A syndicated confirmed credit line with attached options.

Naked option strategies

An unhedged strategy making exclusive use of one of the following: Long call
strategy (buying call options ), short call strategy (selling or writing call options), Long put strategy (buying
put options ), and short put strategy (selling or writing put options). By themselves, these positions are called
naked strategies because they do not involve an offsetting or risk-reducing position in another option or the
underlying security.
Related: covered option strategies.

Nonqualified Stock Option

A stock option not given any favorable tax treatment
under the Internal Revenue Code. The option is taxed when it is exercised,
based on the difference between the option price and the fair market
value of the stock on that day.


Gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a set price on or before a
given date. Investors, not companies, issue options. Investors who purchase call options bet the stock will be
worth more than the price set by the option (the strike price), plus the price they paid for the option itself.
Buyers of put options bet the stock's price will go down below the price set by the option. An option is part of
a class of securities called derivatives, so named because these securities derive their value from the worth of
an underlying investment.







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