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Definition of Staging

Staging Image 1


Picking parts from stock for an order before they are needed, in order to
determine parts shortages in advance.

Related Terms:


An inventory storage area used for short-term inventory staging.

ABC inventory classification

A method for dividing inventory into classifications,
either by transaction volume or cost. Typically, category A includes that 20% of
inventory involving 60% of all costs or transactions, while category B includes
the next 20% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or transactions, and category
C includes the remaining 60% of inventory involving 20% of all costs or

Acquisition of stock

A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.

Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


A payment made by a customer to the company, or by the company to a
supplier, in advance of the performance of any associated service or delivery of

Advance commitment

A promise to sell an asset before the seller has lined up purchase of the asset. This
seller can offset risk by purchasing a futures contract to fix the sales price.

Advance material request

Very early orders for materials before the completion
of a product design, given the long lead times required to supply some items.

Staging Image 1

American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.

Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.

Automated storage/retrieval system

A racking system using automated systems
to load and unload the racks.

Average-Cost Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that assigns the average
cost of beginning inventory and inventory purchases during a period to cost of goods sold and
ending inventory.

Average inventory

The beginning inventory for a period, plus the amount at the end of
the period, divided by two. It is most commonly used in situations in which just
using the period-end inventory yields highly variable results, due to constant and
large changes in the inventory level.

Batch picking

Picking for several summarized orders at the same time, thereby
reducing the total number of required picks. The combined picks must still be
separated into their constituent orders, typically at some central location.

Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.

Beta equation (Stocks)

The beta of a stock is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (24-60 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the stock

Blanket inventory lien

A secured loan that gives the lender a lien against all the borrower's inventories.

Staging Image 2

Book inventory

The amount of money invested in inventory, as per a company’s
accounting records. It is comprised of the beginning inventory balance, plus the
cost of any receipts, less the cost of sold or scrapped inventory. It may be significantly
different from the actual on-hand inventory, if the two are not periodically


The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)

Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.

capital stock

Ownership shares issued by a business corporation. A business
corporation may issue more than one class of capital stock shares.
One class may give voting privileges in the election of the directors of the
corporation while the other class does not. One class (called preferred
stock) may entitle a certain amount of dividends per share before cash
dividends can be paid on the other class (usually called common stock).
stock shares may have a minimum value at which they have to be issued
(called the par value), or stock shares can be issued for any amount
(called no-par stock). stock shares may be traded on public markets such
as the New York stock Exchange or over the Nasdaq network. There are
about 10,000 stocks traded on public markets (although estimates vary
on this number). In this regard, I find it very interesting that there are
more than 8,000 mutual funds that invest in stocks.

Capital Stock

The total amount of plant, equipment, and other physical capital.

Cash Flow Provided or Used from Financing Activities

Cash receipts and payments involving
liability and stockholders' equity items, including obtaining cash from creditors and repaying
the amounts borrowed and obtaining capital from owners and providing them with a return on,
and a return of, their investments.

Cash Flow Provided or Used from Investing Activities

Cash receipts and payments involving
long-term assets, including making and collecting loans and acquiring and disposing of
investments and productive long-lived assets.

Cherry Picking

Selecting specific assets for sale so as to record desired gains or losses.

Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.

coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model

Common stock

These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. Common shares let an
investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. they also give the holder a share in a company's
profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security.

Common stock

Shares of ownership sold to the public.

Common Stock

A financial security that represents an ownership claim on the
assets and earnings of a company. This claim is valid after the
claims of the debt providers and preferred stockholders have been

common stock

Ownership shares in a publicly held corporation.

Common Stock

That part of the capital stock of a corporation that carries voting rights and represents
the last claim on assets and dividends.

Common stock equivalent

A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned
common stock is trading high.

Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.

Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.

Common stock ratios

Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.

Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.

Consigned stocks

Inventories owned by a company, but located on the premises
of its agents or distributors.

Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred

Convertible preferred stock

Preferred stock that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.

Cost of Common Stock

The rate of return required by the investors in the common stock of
the company. A component of the cost of capital.

Cost of Preferred Stock

The rate of return required by the investors in the preferred stock of
a company. A component of the cost of capital.

Credit Terms

Conditions under which credit is extended by a lender to a borrower.

Cross-border risk

Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.

Cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.

Day order

An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.

Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

Departmental stocks

The informal and frequently unauthorized retention of excess inventory on the shop floor, which is used as buffer safety stock.

Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models

Direct stock-purchase programs

The purchase by investors of securities directly from the issuer.

Discrete order picking

A Picking method requiring the sequential completion of
each order before one begins Picking the next order.


Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.

Distribution inventory

inventory intended for shipment to customers, usually
comprised of finished goods and service items.

Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.

dollar days (of inventory)

a measurement of the value of inventory for the time that inventory is held

earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses—but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

An earningsbased measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. Actually consists of working
capital provided by operations before interest and taxes.

Earnings per share of common stock

How much profit a company made on each share of common stock this year.

EBBS - Earnings before the bad stuff

An acronym attributed to a member of the Securities and
Exchange Commission staff. The reference is to earnings that have been heavily adjusted to
remove a wide range of nonrecurring, nonoperating, and noncash items.

EBDDT - Earnings before depreciation and deferred taxes

This measure is used principally by
firms in the real estate industry, with the exception of real estate investment trusts, which typically
do not pay taxes.

economic order quantity

order size that minimizes total inventory costs.

Economic order quantity (EOQ)

The order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs.

economic order quantity (EOQ)

an estimate of the number
of units per order that will be the least costly and provide
the optimal balance between the costs of ordering
and the costs of carrying inventory

Employee stock fund

A firm-sponsored program that enables employees to purchase shares of the firm's
common stock on a preferential basis.

Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of

Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

a profit-sharing compensation program in which investments are made in
the securities of the employer

Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP)

A fund containing company stock and owned by employees, paid for by ongoing contributions by the employer.

Ending inventory

The dollar value or unit total of goods on hand at the end of an
accounting period.

engineering change order (ECO)

a business mandate that changes the way in which a product is manufactured or a
service is performed by modifying the design, parts,
process, or even quality of the product or service

Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.

Exchange of stock

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.

Fill or kill order

A trading order that is canceled unless executed within a designated time period.
Related: open order.

Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or

financial intermediary

Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
organizations by investing in their securities.

Financial Intermediary

Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.

Financial Intermediation

The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.

Finished goods inventory

Goods that have been completed by the manufacturing
process, or purchased in a complete form, but which have not yet been sold to

Finished goods inventory

Completed inventory items ready for shipment to

First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that
assigns the earliest inventory acquisition costs to cost of goods sold. The most recent inventory
acquisition costs are assumed to remain in ending inventory.

Fixed-location storage

An inventory storage technique under which permanent
locations are assigned to at least some inventory items.

Flexible Term

Optional periods of time which the conditions of a contract will be carried out.

Floor stocks

Low-cost, high-usage inventory items stored near the shop floor,
which the production staff can use at will without a requisition and which are
expensed at the time of receipt, rather than being accounted for through a formal
inventory database.

Fluctuation inventory

Excess inventory kept on hand to provide a buffer against
forecasting errors.

Growth stock

Common stock of a company that has an opportunity to invest money and earn more than the
opportunity cost of capital.

Heavenly Parachute Stock Option

A nonqualified stock option that allows a deceased option holder’s estate up to three years in which to exercise his or her

Hedge inventory

Excess inventories kept on hand as a buffer against contingent

In-transit inventory

inventory currently situated between its shipment and delivery

Inactive inventory

parts with no recent prior or forecasted usage.

Incentive Stock Option

An option to purchase company stock that is not taxable
to the employee at the time it is granted nor at the time when the employee
eventually exercises the option to buy stock.

Income stock

Common stock with a high dividend yield and few profitable investment opportunities.

Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.

Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


An independent third party that may act as a mediator during negotiations.

Intermediate Good

A good used in producing another good.


Typically 1-10 years.


Investment through a financial institution. Related: disintermediation.


For companies: Raw materials, items available for sale or in the process of being made ready for
sale. they can be individually valued by several different means, including cost or current market value, and
collectively by FIFO, LIFO or other techniques. The lower value of alternatives is usually used to preclude
overstating earnings and assets.
For security firms: securities bought and held by a broker or dealer for resale.


Goods bought or manufactured for resale but as yet unsold, comprising raw materials, work-in-progress and finished goods.


The cost of the goods that a company has available for resale.







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