Financial Terms
Short-term tax exempts

Main Page

Alphabetical
Index

SEARCH


Information about financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.

 


Main Page: financial, inventory control, credit, financial advisor, money, accounting, finance, payroll,

Definition of Short-term tax exempts

Short-term Tax Exempts Image 1

Short-term tax exempts

short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.



Related Terms:

After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.


After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.


Asymmetric taxes

A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.


Average tax rate

taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.


Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.



Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.


Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.


Short-term Tax Exempts Image 2

Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.


Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.


Deferred taxes

A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to cover tax liabilities that have not yet been paid.


Depreciation tax shield

The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment.


Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models


Disintermediation

Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.


Double-tax agreement

Agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.


Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.


Short-term Tax Exempts Image 3

Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.


Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.



Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.


Foreign tax credit

Home country credit against domestic income tax for foreign taxes paid on foreign
derived earnings.


Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.


Interest equalization tax

tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.


Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.


Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


Intermediate-term

Typically 1-10 years.


Intermediation

Investment through a financial institution. Related: disintermediation.


Investment tax credit

Proportion of new capital investment that can be used to reduce a company's tax bill
(abolished in 1986).



Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.


Liquidity theory of the term structure

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward
rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a
liquidity premium.


Long-term

In accounting information, one year or greater.


Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.


Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.


Long-term financial plan

Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


Long-term liabilities

Amount owed for leases, bond repayment and other items due after 1 year.


Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.


Marginal tax rate

The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.


Medium-term note

A corporate debt instrument that is continuously offered to investors over a period of
time by an agent of the issuer. Investors can select from the following maturity bands: 9 months to 1 year,
more than 1 year to 18 months, more than 18 months to 2 years, etc., up to 30 years.


Other long term liabilities

Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.


Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.


Progressive tax system

A tax system wherein the average tax rate increases for some increases in income but
never decreases with an increase in income.


Selling short

If an investor thinks the price of a stock is going down, the investor could borrow the stock from
a broker and sell it. Eventually, the investor must buy the stock back on the open market. For instance, you
borrow 1000 shares of XYZ on July 1 and sell it for $8 per share. Then, on Aug 1, you purchase 1000 shares
of XYZ at $7 per share. You've made $1000 (less commissions and other fees) by selling short.


Short

One who has sold a contract to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this position
through an offsetting purchase; the opposite of a long position. Related: Long.


Short bonds

Bonds with short current maturities.


Short book

See: unmatched book.


Short hedge

The sale of a futures contract(s) to eliminate or lessen the possible decline in value ownership of
an approximately equal amount of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity.
Related: Long hedge.


Short interest

This is the total number of shares of a security that investors have borrowed, then sold in the
hope that the security will fall in value. An investor then buys back the shares and pockets the difference as profit.


Short position

Occurs when a person sells stocks he or she does not yet own. Shares must be borrowed,
before the sale, to make "good delivery" to the buyer. Eventually, the shares must be bought to close out the
transaction. This technique is used when an investor believes the stock price will go down.


Short sale

Selling a security that the seller does not own but is committed to repurchasing eventually. It is
used to capitalize on an expected decline in the security's price.


Short selling

Establishing a market position by selling a security one does not own in anticipation of the price
of that security falling.


Short squeeze

A situation in which a lack of supply tends to force prices upward.


Short straddle

A straddle in which one put and one call are sold.


Shortage cost

Costs that fall with increases in the level of investment in current assets.


Shortfall risk

The risk of falling short of any investment target.


Short-run operating activities

Events and decisions concerning the short-term finance of a firm, such as
how much inventory to order and whether to offer cash terms or credit terms to customers.


Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.


Short-term investment services

Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.


Short-term solvency ratios

Ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term
obligations as they come due, including
1) the current ratio,
2) the acid-test ratio,
3) the inventory turnover ratio, and
4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.


Split-rate tax system

A tax system that taxes retained earnings at a higher rate than earnings that are
distributed as dividends.


TANs (tax anticipation notes)

tax anticipation notes issued by states or municipalities to finance current
operations in anticipation of future tax receipts.


Tax anticipation bills (TABs)

Special bills that the Treasury occasionally issues that mature on corporate
quarterly income tax dates and can be used at face value by corporations to pay their tax liabilities.


Tax books

Set of books kept by a firm's management for the IRS that follows IRS rules. The stockholder's
books follow Financial Accounting Standards Board rules.


Tax clawback agreement

An agreement to contribute as equity to a project the value of all previously
realized project-related tax benefits not already clawed back to the extent required to cover any cash
deficiency of the project.


Tax differential view ( of dividend policy)

The view that shareholders prefer capital gains over dividends,
and hence low payout ratios, because capital gains are effectively taxed at lower rates than dividends.


Tax-exempt sector

The municipal bond market where state and local governments raise funds. Bonds issued
in this sector are exempt from federal income taxes.


Tax free acquisition

A merger or consolidation in which 1) the acquirer's tax basis in each asset whose
ownership is transferred in the transaction is generally the same as the acquiree's, and 2) each seller who
receives only stock does not have to pay any tax on the gain he realizes until the shares are sold.


Tax haven

A nation with a moderate level of taxation and/or liberal tax incentives for undertaking specific
activities such as exporting or investing.


Tax Reform Act of 1986

A 1986 law involving a major overhaul of the U.S. tax code.


Tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from taking an allowable deduction from taxable income.


Tax swap

Swapping two similar bonds to receive a tax benefit.


Tax deferral option

The feature of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code that the capital gains tax on an asset is
payable only when the gain is realized by selling the asset.


Tax-deferred retirement plans

Employer-sponsored and other plans that allow contributions and earnings to
be made and accumulate tax-free until they are paid out as benefits.


Tax-timing option

The option to sell an asset and claim a loss for tax purposes or not to sell the asset and
defer the capital gains tax.


Taxable acquisition

A merger or consolidation that is not a tax-fee acquisition. The selling shareholders are
treated as having sold their shares.


Taxable income

Gross income less a set of deductions.


Taxable transaction

Any transaction that is not tax-free to the parties involved, such as a taxable acquisition.


Term bonds

Often referred to as bullet-maturity bonds or simply bullet bonds, bonds whose principal is
payable at maturity. Related: serial bonds


Term Fed Funds

Fed Funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.


Term life insurance

A contract that provides a death benefit but no cash build-up or investment component.
The premium remains constant only for a specified term of years, and the policy is usually renewable at the
end of each term.


Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.


Term insurance

Provides a death benefit only, no build-up of cash value.


Term repo

A repurchase agreement with a term of more than one day.
term structure of interest rates
Relationship between interest rates on bonds of different maturities usually
depicted in the form of a graph often depicted as a yield curve. Harvey shows that inverted term structures
(long rates below short rates) have preceded every recession over the past 30 years.


Term to maturity

The time remaining on a bond's life, or the date on which the debt will cease to exist and
the borrower will have completely paid off the amount borrowed. See: Maturity.


Term premiums

Excess of the yields to maturity on long-term bonds over those of short-term bonds.


Term trust

A closed-end fund that has a fixed termination or maturity date.


Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.


Terms of sale

Conditions on which a firm proposes to sell its goods services for cash or credit.


Terms of trade

The weighted average of a nation's export prices relative to its import prices.


Two-tier tax system

A method of taxation in which the income going to shareholders is taxed twice.


Value-added tax

Method of indirect taxation whereby a tax is levied at each stage of production on the value
added at that specific stage.


Withholding tax

A tax levied by a country of source on income paid, usually on dividends remitted to the
home country of the firm operating in a foreign country. tax levied on dividends paid abroad.


INCOME TAX

What the business paid to the IRS.


LONG-TERM LIABILITIES

Bills that are payable in more than one year, such as a mortgage or bonds.


Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.


Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.


Long-term liabilities

Amounts owing after more than one year.


Profit before interest and taxes (PBIT)

See EBIT.



 

 

 

 

 

 

Related to : financial, finance, business, accounting, payroll, inventory, investment, money, inventory control, stock trading, financial advisor, tax advisor, credit.


Copyrightę 2023 www.finance-lib.com