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Progressive tax system

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Definition of Progressive tax system

Progressive Tax System Image 1

Progressive tax system

A tax system wherein the average tax rate increases for some increases in income but
never decreases with an increase in income.

Related Terms:

Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.

Accounting system

A set of accounts that summarize the transactions of a business that have been recorded on source documents.

actual cost system

a valuation method that uses actual direct
material, direct labor, and overhead charges in determining
the cost of Work in Process Inventory

After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.

After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.

Asymmetric taxes

A situation wherein participants in a transaction have different net tax rates.

Automated storage/retrieval system

A racking system using automated systems
to load and unload the racks.

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Average tax rate

taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.

average tax rate

Total taxes owed divided by total income.

Before-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income before taxes to net sales.

Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.

business intelligence (BI) system

a formal process for gathering and analyzing information and producing intelligence to meet decision making needs; requires information about
internal processes as well as knowledge, technologies, and competitors

Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

charge-back system

a system using transfer prices; see transfer

Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for Payment Clearing Services (APACS).

Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.

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Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.

Corporate taxable equivalent

Rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.

cost control system

a logical structure of formal and/or informal
activities designed to analyze and evaluate how well
expenditures are managed during a period

cost management system (CMS)

a set of formal methods
developed for planning and controlling an organization’s
cost-generating activities relative to its goals and objectives
cost object anything to which costs attach or are related

Current Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is based on
taxable income.

Current Tax Payment Act of 1943

A federal Act requiring employers to withhold income taxes from employee pay.

Deferred Income Tax Expense

That portion of the total income tax provision that is the result
of current-period originations and reversals of temporary differences.

Deferred Tax Asset

Future tax benefit that results from (1) the origination of a temporary difference
that causes pretax book income to be less than taxable income or (2) a loss, credit, or other
carryforward. Future tax benefits are realized on the reversal of deductible temporary differences
or the offsetting of a loss carryforward against taxable income or a tax-credit carryforward against
the current tax provision.

Deferred Tax Liability

Future tax obligation that results from the origination of a temporary
difference that causes pretax book income to exceed taxable income.

Deferred taxes

A non-cash expense that provides a source of free cash flow. Amount allocated during the
period to cover tax liabilities that have not yet been paid.

Depreciation tax shield

The value of the tax write-off on depreciation of plant and equipment.

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depreciation tax shield

Reduction in taxes attributable to the depreciation allowance.

Double-tax agreement

Agreement between two countries that taxes paid abroad can be offset against
domestic taxes levied on foreign dividends.

Du Pont system

A breakdown of ROE and ROA into component ratios.

Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.

earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses—but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

An earningsbased measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. Actually consists of working
capital provided by operations before interest and taxes.

EBDDT - Earnings before depreciation and deferred taxes

This measure is used principally by
firms in the real estate industry, with the exception of real estate investment trusts, which typically
do not pay taxes.

Effective Tax Rate

The total tax provision divided by pretax book income from continuing

Electronic Federal Tax Payment Systems (EFTPS)

An electronic funds transfer system used by businesses to remit taxes to the government.

enterprise resource planning (ERP) system

a packaged software program that allows a company to
(1) automate and integrate the majority of its business processes,
(2) share common data and practices across the entire enterprise, and
(3) produce and access information in a realtime environment

Enterprise resource planning system

A computer system used to manage all company
resources in the receipt, completion, and delivery of customer orders.

Equivalent taxable yield

The yield that must be offered on a taxable bond issue to give the same after-tax
yield as a tax-exempt issue.

European Monetary System (EMS)

An exchange arrangement formed in 1979 that involves the currencies
of European Union member countries.

Federal Reserve System

The central bank of the U.S., established in 1913, and governed by the Federal
Reserve Board located in Washington, D.C. The system includes 12 Federal Reserve Banks and is authorized
to regulate monetary policy in the U.S. as well as to supervise Federal Reserve member banks, bank holding
companies, international operations of U.S.banks, and U.S.operations of foreign banks.

Federal Reserve System

The central banking authority responsible for monetary policy in the United States.

Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)

A federal Act requiring employers to pay a tax on the wages paid to their employees, which is then used to create a
pool of funds to be used for unemployment benefits.

flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

a production system in which a single factory manufactures numerous variations
of products through the use of computer-controlled
focused factory arrangement
an arrangement in which a
vendor (which may be an external party or an internal corporate
division) agrees to provide a limited number of
products according to specifications or to perform a limited
number of unique services to a company that is typically
operating on a just-in-time system

Foreign tax credit

Home country credit against domestic income tax for foreign taxes paid on foreign
derived earnings.

hybrid costing system

a costing system combining characteristics
of both job order and process costing systems

Imputation tax system

Arrangement by which investors who receive a dividend also receive a tax credit for
corporate taxes that the firm has paid.


What the business paid to the IRS.

Income tax

A government tax on the income earned by an individual or corporation.

Income Tax Expense

See income tax provision.

Income Tax Provision

The expense deduction from pretax book income reported on the
income statement. It consists of both current income tax expense and deferred income tax
expense. The terms income tax expense and income tax provision are used interchangeably.

Indirect Taxes

taxes paid by consumers when they buy goods and services. A sales tax is an example.

Inflation Tax

The loss in purchasing power due to inflation eroding the real value of financial assets such as cash.

Interac system

Canada's bank machine and electronic debit system. If you use your bank card at a bank machine which displays the Interac symbol (and that bank machine is not your bank's machine), you will be charged a fee.

Interest equalization tax

tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.

Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.

interest tax shield

tax savings resulting from deductibility of interest payments.

Investment tax credit

Proportion of new capital investment that can be used to reduce a company's tax bill
(abolished in 1986).

Investment Tax Credit

A reduction in taxes offered to firms to induce them to increase investment spending.

job order costing system

a system of product costing used
by an entity that provides limited quantities of products or
services unique to a customer’s needs; focus of recordkeeping
is on individual jobs

Just-in-time inventory systems

systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.

just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production

Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.

lock-box system

system whereby customers send payments to a post office box and a local bank collects and processes checks.

MACRS (Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System)

A depreciation method created by the IRS under the tax Reform Act of 1986. Companies must use it to depreciate all plant and equipment assets installed after December 31, 1986 (for tax purposes).

management control system (MCS)

an information system that helps managers gather information about actual organizational occurrences, make comparisons against plans,
effect changes when they are necessary, and communicate
among appropriate parties; it should serve to guide organizations
in designing and implementing strategies so that
organizational goals and objectives are achieved

management information system (MIS)

a structure of interrelated elements that collects, organizes, and communicates
data to managers so they may plan, control, evaluate
performance, and make decisions; the emphasis of the
MIS is on internal demands for information rather than external
demands; some or all of the MIS may be computerized
for ease of access to information, reliability of input
and processing, and ability to simulate outcomes of
alternative situations

Margin Tax Rate

The tax rate applicable to the last unit of income.

Marginal tax rate

The tax rate that would have to be paid on any additional dollars of taxable income earned.

marginal tax rate

Additional taxes owed per dollar of additional income.

Marginal Tax Rate

Percent of an increase in income paid in tax.

Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS)

Depreciation method that allows higher tax deductions in early years and lower deductions later.

Multirule system

A technical trading strategy that combines mechanical rules, such as the CRISMA
(cumulative volume, relative strength, moving average) Trading system of Pruitt and White.

Nonsystematic risk

Nonmarket or firm-specific risk factors that can be eliminated by diversification. Also
called unique risk or diversifiable risk. systematic risk refers to risk factors common to the entire economy.

normal cost system

a valuation method that uses actual
costs of direct material and direct labor in conjunction with
a predetermined overhead rate or rates in determining the
cost of Work in Process Inventory

Overdraft System

system whereby a depositor may write cheques in excess of the balance, with the bank automatically extending a loan to cover the shortage.

Payroll tax expense

The amount of tax associated with salaries that an employer pays to governments (federal, state, and local).

Payroll taxes payable

The amount of payroll taxes owed to the various governments at the end of a period.

performance management system

a system reflecting the entire package of decisions regarding performance measurement and evaluation

Periodic inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the Inventory account is adjusted for the units sold only at the end of the period.

Perpetual inventory system

An inventory system in which the balance in the Inventory account is adjusted for the units sold each time a sale is made.

Personal tax view (of capital structure)

The argument that the difference in personal tax rates between
income from debt and income from equity eliminates the disadvantage from the double taxation (corporate
and personal) of income from equity.

Planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS)

A method of budgeting in which budgets are allocated to projects or programmes rather than to responsibility centres.

PLUS system

A bank machine network outside Canada, across the U.S. and internationally. Customers who use a bank machine with a 'PLUS' symbol may be charged a fee.

Price System

See market mechanism.

process costing system

a method of accumulating and assigning costs to units of production in companies producing large quantities of homogeneous products;
it accumulates costs by cost component in each production department and assigns costs to units using equivalent units of production

Profit before interest and taxes (PBIT)


Progressive Tax

A tax in which the rich pay a larger percentage of income than the poor. Contrast with regressive tax.

Proportional Tax

A tax taking the same percentage of income regardless of the level of income.

pull system

a production system dictated by product sales
and demand; a system in which parts are delivered or produced
only as they are needed by the work center for which
they are intended; it requires only minimal storage facilities

Pull system

A materials flow concept in which parts are only withdrawn after a
request is made by the using operation for more parts.

push system

the traditional production system in which
work centers may produce inventory that is not currently
needed because of lead time or economic production/
order requirements; it requires that excess inventory be
stored until needed

Push system

A materials flow concept in which parts are issued based on planned
material requirements.

red-line system

an inventory ordering system in which a red
line is painted on the inventory container at a point deemed
to be the reorder point

Regressive Tax

A tax in which the poor pay a larger percentage of income than the rich. Contrast with progressive tax.

responsibility accounting system

an accounting information system for successively higher-level managers about the performance of segments or subunits under the control
of each specific manager







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