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Definition of Productivity
Output per unit of input, usually measured as output per hour of labor.
the total units produced during a period
a ratio measuring asset productivity and showing the number of sales dollars generated by each dollar of assets
The process of either reducing costs while maintaining the same level of productivity or maintaining costs while increasing productivity.
The ratio of net credit sales to average accounts receivable, a measure of how
A ratio computed by dividing annual
A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the selling firm's assets.
Any possession that has value in an exchange.
A resource, recorded through a transaction, that is expected to yield a benefit to a
Something that is owned; a financial claim or a piece of property that is a store of value.
Probable future economic benefit that is obtained or controlled by an entity as a result of
Anything owned by, or owed to, an individual or business which has commercial or exchange value (e.g., cash, property, etc.).
All things of value owned by an individual or organization.
Ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.
The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
Bond or note secured by assets of company.
A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
Loans granted usually by a financial institution where the asset being financed constitutes the sole security given to the lender.
Categories of assets, such as stocks, bonds, real estate and foreign securities.
Extent to which a company's net assets cover a particular debt obligation, class of preferred stock, or equity position.
A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.
Asset for asset swap
Creditors exchange the debt of one defaulting borrower for the debt of another
Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
The weighting of assets in an investment portfolio among different asset classes (e.g. shares, bonds, property, cash, overseas investments.
Asset pricing model
A model for determining the required rate of return on an asset.
Asset pricing model
A model, such as the Capital asset Pricing Model (CAPM), that determines the required
The amount of total risk that can be eliminated by diversification by
A firm's investing in assets that are riskier than those that the debtholders expected.
Asset substitution problem
Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's assets so as to
asset turnover ratio
A broad-gauge ratio computed by dividing annual
A firm's productive resources.
Anything of value that a company owns.
Things that the business owns.
Items owned by the company or expenses that have been paid for but have not been used up.
A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
business process reengineering (BPR)
the process of combining information technology to create new and more effective
an asset used to generate revenues or cost savings
A fixed asset, something that is expected to have long-term usage within
Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
A model for estimating equilibrium rates of return and values of
capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
Theory of the relationship between risk and return which states that the expected risk
Capitalized Cost An expenditure or accrual that is reported as an asset to be amortized against
The number of cash cycles completed in one year.
An offset to an asset account that reduces the balance of the asset account.
Corporate processing float
The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the
relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
Typically the cash, accounts receivable, and inventory accounts on the
Value of cash, accounts receivable, inventories, marketable securities and other assets that
Cash, things that will be converted into cash within a year (such as accounts receivable), and inventory.
Amounts receivable by the business within a period of 12 months, including bank, debtors, inventory and prepayments.
Current refers to cash and those assets that will be turned
Cash and other company assets that can be readily turned into cash within one year.
Deferred Tax Asset
Future tax benefit that results from (1) the origination of a temporary difference
A conception of the way a stock's price changes that assumes that the price takes on all
Dynamic asset allocation
An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in
Exchange of assets
Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.
FIFO method (of process costing)
the method of cost assignment that computes an average cost per equivalent
Claims on real assets.
Claims to the income generated by real assets. Also called securities.
Long-lived property owned by a firm that is used by a firm in the production of its income.
An item with a longevity greater than one year, and which exceeds a company’s
Fixed asset turnover ratio
The ratio of sales to fixed assets.
Things that the business owns and are part of the business infrastructure – fixed assets may be
An informal term that refers to the variety of long-term operating
Land, buildings, plant, equipment, and other assets acquired for carrying on the business of a company with a life exceeding one year. Normally expressed in financial accounts at cost, less accumulated depreciation.
Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio
A measure of the utilization of a company's fixed assets to
In-house processing float
Refers to the time it takes the receiver of a check to process the payment and
A legal claim to some future benefit, typically a claim to future cash. Goodwill, intellectual
A nonphysical asset with a life greater than one year. Examples are
assets owned by the company that do not possess physical substance; they usually take the form of rights and privileges such as patents, copyrights, and franchises.
Intangible fixed assets
Non-physical assets, e.g. customer goodwill or intellectual property (patents and trademarks).
The ratio of annual sales to average inventory which measures the speed that inventory
The number of times a company sold out and replaced its average stock of goods in a year. The formula is:
The number of times per year that an entire inventory or a
Ratio of annual sales to inventory, which shows how many times the inventory of a firm is sold and replaced during an accounting period.
inventory turnover ratio
The cost-of-goods-sold expense for a given
Inventory Turnover Ratio
Provides a measure of how often a company's inventory is sold or
Statistical assumptions about the behavior of security prices. For
a manufacturing process that simultaneously
Limitation on asset dispositions
A bond covenant that restricts in some way a firm's ability to sell major assets.
asset that is easily and cheaply turned into cash - notably cash itself and short-term securities.
Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
Longer-Term Fixed Assets
assets having a useful life greater than one year but the duration of the 'long term' will vary with the context in which the term is applied.
modified FIFO method (of process costing)
the method of cost assignment that uses FIFO to compute a cost per
the ability of a worker to monitor
net asset value
The value of all the holdings of a mutual fund, less the fund's liabilities.
Net asset value (NAV)
The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
The difference between total assets on the one hand and current liabilities and noncapitalized longterm
A tangible asset with unique physical properties, like a parcel of land, a mine, or a
A cluster of accounts that are listed after fixed assets on the balance sheet,
Other current assets
Value of non-cash assets, including prepaid expenses and accounts receivable, due
assets, the title of which are held personally rather than in the name of some other legal entity.
Policy asset allocation
A long-term asset allocation method, in which the investor seeks to assess an
Portfolio turnover rate
For an investment company, an annualized rate found by dividing the lesser of
Preferred Stock Stock that has a claim on assets and dividends of a corporation that are prior
to that of common stock. Preferred stock typically does not carry the right to vote.
Price discovery process
The process of determining the prices of the assets in the marketplace through the
A series of linked activities that result in a specific objective. For example, the
benchmarking that focuses on practices and how the best-in-class companies achieved their results
an assessment about the number of processes through which a product flows
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