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Perfect market view (of dividend policy)

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Definition of Perfect market view (of dividend policy)

Perfect Market View (of Dividend Policy) Image 1

Perfect market view (of dividend policy)

Analysis of a decision on dividend policy, in a perfect capital
market environment, that shows the irrelevance of dividend policy in a perfect capital market.



Related Terms:

Accomodating Policy

A monetary policy of matching wage and price increases with money supply increases so that the real money supply does not fall and push the economy into recession.


Agency cost view

The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in
which total agency costs are at a minimum with some, but less than 100%, debt financing.


Analytical Review

The process of attempting to infer the presence of potential problems
through the analysis of ratios and other relationships, often over time.


Auction markets

markets in which the prevailing price is determined through the free interaction of
prospective buyers and sellers, as on the floor of the stock exchange.


Bankruptcy cost view

The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt finaning.



Bankruptcy view

The argument that expected bankruptcy costs preclude firms from being financed entirely
with debt.


Bear market

Any market in which prices are in a declining trend.


Perfect Market View (of Dividend Policy) Image 2

bear market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally
falling.


Bear Market

A prolonged period of falling stock market prices.


Beggar-My-Neighbor Policy

A policy designed to increase an economy's prosperity at the expense of another country's prosperity.


Black market

An illegal market.


Brokered market

A market where an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers.


Bull market

Any market in which prices are in an upward trend.


bull market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally rising.


Bull Market

A prolonged period of rising stock market prices.


Bulldog market

The foreign market in the United Kingdom.


Perfect Market View (of Dividend Policy) Image 3

Capital market

The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).


Capital market

The market in which investors buy and sell shares of companies, normally associated with a Stock Exchange.



Capital Market

A market that specializes in trading long-term, relatively high risk
securities


Capital Market

The market in which savings are made available to those needing funds to undertake investment projects. A financial market in which longer-term (maturity greater than one year) bonds and stocks are traded.


Capital market efficiency

Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.


Capital market imperfections view

The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.


Capital market line (CML)

The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.


capital markets

markets for long-term financing.


Cash dividend

A dividend paid in cash to a company's shareholders. The amount is normally based on
profitability and is taxable as income. A cash distribution may include capital gains and return of capital in
addition to the dividend.


cash dividend

Payment of cash by the firm to its shareholders.


Cash markets

Also called spot markets, these are markets that involve the immediate delivery of a security
or instrument.
Related: derivative markets.


Perfect Market View (of Dividend Policy) Image 4

Cold-Turkey Policy

Decreasing inflation by immediately decreasing the money growth rate to a new, low rate. Contrast with gradualism.



Collection policy

Procedures followed by a firm in attempting to collect accounts receivables.


collection policy

Procedures to collect and monitor receivables.


Common market

An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital
and labor as well as goods and services.


Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.


Complete capital market

A market in which there is a distinct marketable security for each and every
possible outcome.


constant-growth dividend discount model

Version of the dividend discount model in which dividends grow at a constant rate.


Corner A Market

To purchase enough of the available supply of a commodity or stock in order to
manipulate its price.


Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.


credit policy

Standards set to determine the amount and nature of credit to extend to customers.


Cum dividend

With dividend.


Cumulative dividend feature

A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid
in full before any common dividend payment is made.


Dealer market

A market where traders specializing in particular commodities buy and sell assets for their
own accounts.


Debt market

The market for trading debt instruments.


Delivery policy

A company’s stated goal for how soon a customer order will be
shipped following receipt of that order.


Demand Management Policy

Fiscal or monetary policy designed to influence aggregate demand for goods and services.


Derivative markets

markets for derivative instruments.


Direct search market

Buyers and sellers seek each other directly and transact directly.


Discounted dividend model (DDM)

A formula to estimate the intrinsic value of a firm by figuring the
present value of all expected future dividends.


Discretionary Policy

A policy that is a conscious, considered response to each situation as it arises. Contrast with policy rule.


Dividend

A dividend is a portion of a company's profit paid to common and preferred shareholders. A stock
selling for $20 a share with an annual dividend of $1 a share yields the investor 5%.


Dividend

A payment a company makes to stockholders. Earnings before income tax. The profit a company made
before income taxes.


Dividend

The payment of after-tax profits to shareholders as their share of the profits of the business for an accounting period.


Dividend

A payment made to shareholders that is proportional to the number of shares
owned. It is authorized by the Board of Directors.


dividend

Periodic cash distribution from the firm to its shareholders.


Dividend

As the term dividend relates to a corporation's earnings, a dividend is an amount paid per share from a corporation's after tax profits. Depending on the type of share, it may or may not have the right to earn any dividends and corporations may reduce or even suspend dividend payments if they are not doing well. Some dividends are paid in the form of additional shares of the corporation. dividends paid by Canadian corporations qualify for the dividend tax credit and are taxed at lower rates than other income.
As the term dividend relates to a life insurance policy, it means that if that policy is "participating", the policy owner is entitled to participate in an equitable distribution of the surplus earnings of the insurance company which issued the policy. Surpluses arise primarily from three sources:
1) the difference between anticipated and actual operating expenses,
2) the difference between anticipated and actual claims experience, and
3) interest earned on investments over and above the rate required to maintain policy reserves. Having regard to the source of the surplus, the "dividend" so paid can be considered, in part at least, as a refund of part of the premium paid by the policy owner.
Life insurance policy owners of participating policies usually have four and sometimes five dividend options from which to choose:
1) take the dividend in cash,
2) apply the dividend to reduce current premiums,
3) leave the dividends on deposit with the insurance company to accumulate at interest like a savings plan,
4) use the dividends to purchase paid-up whole life insurance to mature at the same time as the original policy,
5) use the dividends to purchase one year term insurance equal to the guaranteed cash value at the end of the policy year, with any portion of the dividend not required for this purpose being applied under one of the other dividend options.
NOTE: It is suggested here that if you have a participating whole life policy and at the time of purchase received a "dividend projection" of incredible future savings, ask for a current projection. Life insurance company's surpluses are not what they used to be.


Dividend

Unlike dividends which are paid to company shareholders, participating insurance policy dividends are not based on the company's overall profits. Rather, they are determined by grouping policies by type and country of issue and looking at how each class contributes to the company's earnings and surplus.


Dividend clawback

With respect to a project financing, an arrangement under which the sponsors of a project
agree to contribute as equity any prior dividends received from the project to the extent necessary to cover
any cash deficiencies.


Dividend clientele

A group of shareholders who prefer that the firm follow a particular dividend policy. For
example, such a preference is often based on comparable tax situations.


dividend discount model

Computation of today’s stock price which states that share value equals the present value of all expected future dividends.


Dividend discount model (DDM)

A model for valuing the common stock of a company, based on the
present value of the expected cash flows.


dividend growth method

a method of computing the cost
of common stock equity that indicates the rate of return
that common shareholders expect to earn in the form of
dividends on a company’s common stock


Dividend growth model

A model wherein dividends are assumed to be at a constant rate in perpetuity.


Dividend income

Income that a company receives in the form of dividends on stock in other companies that it holds.


Dividend limitation

A bond covenant that restricts in some way the firm's ability to pay cash dividends.


Dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.


dividend payout ratio

Computed by dividing cash dividends for the year
by the net income for the year. It’s simply the percent of net income distributed
as cash dividends for the year.


dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.


Dividend policy

An established guide for the firm to determine the amount of money it will pay as dividends.


Dividend Policy

This policy governs Canada Life's actions regarding distribution of dividends to policyholders. It's goal is to achieve a dividend distribution that is equitable and timely, and which gives full recognition of the need to ensure the ongoing solidity of the company. It also specifies that distribution to individual policyholders must be equitable between dividend classes and policyholder generations, and among policyholders within any class.


Dividend rate

The fixed or floating rate paid on preferred stock based on par value.


Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the Long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the
holder.


Dividend rights

A shareholders' rights to receive per-share dividends identical to those other shareholders receive.


Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.


dividend yield ratio

Cash dividends paid by a business over the most
recent 12 months (called the trailing 12 months) divided by the current
market price per share of the stock. This ratio is reported in the daily
stock trading tables in the Wall Street Journal and other major newspapers.


Dividend yield (Stocks)

Indicated yield represents annual dividends divided by current stock price.


Dividends

Amounts paid to the owners of a company that represent a share of the income of the company.


Dividends

Profits paid out to shareholders by a corporation.


Dividends per share

Amount of cash paid to shareholders expressed as dollars per share.


Dividends per share

dividends paid for the past 12 months divided by the number of common shares
outstanding, as reported by a company. The number of shares often is determined by a weighted average of
shares outstanding over the reporting term.


DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.


Domestic market

Part of a nation's internal market representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading
securities of entities domiciled within that nation. Compare external market and foreign market.


Efficient capital market

A market in which new information is very quickly reflected accurately in share
prices.


efficient capital markets

Financial markets in which security prices rapidly reflect all relevant information about asset values.


Efficient Market Hypothesis

In general the hypothesis states that all relevant information is fully and
immediately reflected in a security's market price thereby assuming that an investor will obtain an equilibrium
rate of return. In other words, an investor should not expect to earn an abnormal return (above the market
return) through either technical analysis or fundamental analysis. Three forms of efficient market hypothesis
exist: weak form (stock prices reflect all information of past prices), semi-strong form (stock prices reflect all
publicly available information) and strong form (stock prices reflect all relevant information including insider
information).


Efficient Markets Hypothesis

The hypothesis that securities are typically in equilibrium--that they are fairly priced in the sense that the price reflects all publicly available information on the security.


Either-way market

In the interbank Eurodollar deposit market, an either-way market is one in which the bid
and offered rates are identical.


Emerging markets

The financial markets of developing economies.


Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.


Equity market

Related:Stock market


Eurocurrency market

The money market for borrowing and lending currencies that are held in the form of
deposits in banks located outside the countries of the currencies issued as legal tender.


Ex-dividend

This literally means "without dividend." The buyer of shares when they are quoted ex-dividend
is not entitled to receive a declared dividend.


Ex-dividend date

The first day of trading when the seller, rather than the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to
the most recently announced dividend payment. This date set by the NYSE (and generally followed on other
US exchanges) is currently two business days before the record date. A stock that has gone ex-dividend is
marked with an x in newspaper listings on that date.


ex-dividend date

Date that determines whether a stockholder is entitled to a dividend payment; anyone holding stock before this date is entitled to a dividend.


Excess return on the market portfolio

The difference between the return on the market portfolio and the
riskless rate.


Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.


External market

Also referred to as the international market, the offshore market, or, more popularly, the
Euromarket, the mechanism for trading securities that (1) at issuance are offered simultaneously to investors
in a number of countries and (2) are issued outside the jurisdiction of any single country. Related: internal
market


Extra or special dividends

A dividend that is paid in addition to a firm's "regular" quarterly dividend.


Fair market price

Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, both having
knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price.


Fair market value

The price that an asset or service will fetch on the open market.


Fair Market Value

The highest price available, expressed in terms of cash, in an open and unrestricted market between informed, prudent parties acting at arm's length and under no compulsion to transact.


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