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Definition of New Keynesians

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New Keynesians

Economists who, like Keynes, believe that for good reason wages and prices are sticky and so prolong recessions, suggesting a need for government policy.



Related Terms:

Guaranteed Renewal

A promise that a life insurance policy will be renewed without penalty or medical examination after the term has expired. The renewal rate can also be guaranteed.


New Classicals

Economists who, like classical economists, believe that wages and prices are sufficiently flexible to solve the unemployment problem without help from government policy.


New-issues market

The market in which a new issue of securities is first sold to investors.


New money

In a Treasury auction, the amount by which the par value of the securities offered exceeds that of
those maturing.


New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the
largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in new York City



Seasoned new issue

A new issue of stock after the company's securities have previously been issued. A
seasoned new issue of common stock can be made by using a cash offer or a rights offer.


Yearly Renewable Term Insurance

Sometimes, simply called YRT, this is a form of term life insurance that may be renewed annually without evidence of insurability to a stated age.


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GMCs (guaranteed mortgage certificates)

First issued by Freddie Mac in 1975, GMCs, like PCs, represent
undivided interest in specified conventional whole loans and participations previously purchased by Freddie Mac.


Guaranteed insurance contract

A contract promising a stated nominal interest rate over some specific time
period, usually several years.


Guaranteed Interest Annuity (GIA)

Interest bearing investment with fixed rate and term.


Guaranteed Interest Certificate (GIC)

Interest bearing investment with fixed rate and term.


guaranteed investment certificate (GIC)

A GIC is an investment that gives you a guaranteed rate of return over a fixed period of time, usually between 30 days and 5 years. GICs are available from banks, trust companies, and other financial institutions.


Guaranteed investment contract (GIC)

A pure investment product in which a life company agrees, for a
single premium, to pay the principal amount of a predetermined annual crediting (interest) rate over the life of
the investment, all of which is paid at the maturity date.


"Soft" Capital Rationing

Capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
as made up of targets rather than absolute constraints.


Absolute Advantage

The ability to produce a good or service with fewer resources than competitors. See also comparative advantage.


Absolute priority

Rule in bankruptcy proceedings whereby senior creditors are required to be paid in full
before junior creditors receive any payment.


New Keynesians Image 1

Absolute Right of Return

goods may be returned to the seller by the purchaser without restrictions.


Absorption costing

A method of costing in which all fixed and variable production costs are charged to products or services using an allocation base.



absorption costing

a cost accumulation and reporting
method that treats the costs of all manufacturing components
(direct material, direct labor, variable overhead, and
fixed overhead) as inventoriable or product costs; it is the
traditional approach to product costing; it must be used for
external financial statements and tax returns


Absorption costing

A methodology under which all manufacturing costs are assigned
to products, while all non-manufacturing costs are expensed in the current period.


Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Accelerated depreciation

Any depreciation method that produces larger deductions for depreciation in the
early years of a project's life. Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS), which is a depreciation schedule
allowed for tax purposes, is one such example.


accelerated depreciation

(1) The estimated useful life of the fixed asset being depreciated is
shorter than a realistic forecast of its probable actual service life;
(2) more of the total cost of the fixed asset is allocated to the first
half of its useful life than to the second half (i.e., there is a
front-end loading of depreciation expense).


Accelerated depreciation

Any of several methods that recognize an increased amount
of depreciation in the earliest years of asset usage. This results in increased tax benefits
in the first few years of asset usage.


Accidental Dismemberment: (Credit Insurance)

Provides additional financial security should an insured person be dismembered or lose the use of a limb as the result of an accident.


Accomodating Policy

A monetary policy of matching wage and price increases with money supply increases so that the real money supply does not fall and push the economy into recession.


Accounting insolvency

Total liabilities exceed total assets. A firm with a negative net worth is insolvent on
the books.


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Accounting rate of return (ARR)

A method of investment appraisal that measures
the profit generated as a percentage of the
investment – see return on investment.



accounting rate of return (ARR)

the rate of earnings obtained on the average capital investment over the life of a capital project; computed as average annual profits divided by average investment; not based on cash flow


acid test ratio (also called the quick ratio)

The sum of cash, accounts receivable, and short-term marketable
investments (if any) is divided by
total current liabilities to compute this ratio. Suppose that the short-term
creditors were to pounce on a business and not agree to roll over the
debts owed to them by the business. In this rather extreme scenario, the
acid test ratio reveals whether its cash and near-cash assets are enough
to pay its short-term current liabilities. This ratio is an extreme test that
is not likely to be imposed on a business unless it is in financial straits.
This ratio is quite relevant when a business is in a liquidation situation
or bankruptcy proceedings.


Active portfolio strategy

A strategy that uses available information and forecasting techniques to seek a
better performance than a portfolio that is simply diversified broadly. Related: passive portfolio strategy


Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.


After-tax profit margin

The ratio of net income to net sales.


After-tax real rate of return

Money after-tax rate of return minus the inflation rate.


Agency problem

Conflicts of interest among stockholders, bondholders, and managers.


agency problems

Conflicts of interest between the firm’s owners and managers.


All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.


Amortization (Credit Insurance)

Refers to the reduction of debt by regular payments of interest and principal in order to pay off a loan by maturity.


Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).


Annual percentage rate (APR)

The periodic rate times the number of periods in a year. For example, a 5%
quarterly return has an APR of 20%.


annual percentage rate (APR)

Interest rate that is annualized using simple interest.


Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.


Asset substitution problem

Arises when the stockholders substitute riskier assets for the firm's existing
assets and expropriate value from the debtholders.


Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)

Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.


Average life

Also referred to as the weighted-average life (WAL). The average number of years that each
dollar of unpaid principal due on the mortgage remains outstanding. Average life is computed as the weighted average time to the receipt of all future cash flows, using as the weights the dollar amounts of the principal
paydowns.


Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.


Average tax rate

Taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.


average tax rate

Total taxes owed divided by total income.


Barbell strategy

A strategy in which the maturities of the securities included in the portfolio are concentrated
at two extremes.


Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.


Basic business strategies

Key strategies a firm intends to pursue in carrying out its business plan.


Beggar-My-Neighbor Policy

A policy designed to increase an economy's prosperity at the expense of another country's prosperity.


Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").


Beneficiary (Credit Insurance)

The person or party designated to receive proceeds entitled by a benefit. Payment of a benefit is triggered by an event. In the case of credit insurance, the beneficiary will always be the creditor.


Blue Ribbon Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees

A committee formed in response to SEC chairman Arthur Levitt's initiative to improve the financial
reporting environment in the United States. In a report dated February 1999, the committee
made recommendations for new rules for regulation of financial reporting in the United States that
either duplicated or carried forward the recommendations of the Treadway Commission.


book rate of return

Accounting income divided by book value.
Also called accounting rate of return.


Borrower (Credit Insurance)

A consumer who borrows money from a lender.


Break-even payment rate

The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of
a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon
the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower
than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.


Break-even tax rate

The tax rate at which a party to a prospective transaction is indifferent between entering
into and not entering into the transaction.


Broker loan rate

Related: Call money rate.


Bullet strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
concentrated at one point on the yield curve.


Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.


Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Canadian Deposit Insurance Corporation

Better known as CDIC, this is an organization which insures qualifying deposits and GICs at savings institutions, mainly banks and trust companys, which belong to the CDIC for amounts up to $60,000 and for terms of up to five years. Many types of deposits are not insured, such as mortgage-backed deposits, annuities of duration of more than five years, and mutual funds.


Canadian Life and Health Insurance Association (CLHIA)

An association of most of the life and health insurance companies in Canada that conducts research and compiles information about the life and health insurance industry in Canada.


Capitalization Rate

A discount rate used to find the present value of a series of future cash receipts. sometimes called discount rate.


cash burn rate

A relatively recent term that refers to how fast a business
is using up its available cash, especially when its cash flow from operating
activities is negative instead of positive. This term most often refers
to a business struggling through its start-up or early phases that has not
yet generated enough cash inflow from sales to cover its cash outflow for
expenses (and perhaps never will).


Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.


Child Insurance Rider (CIR)

insurance or insurability provided on current or future children of insured.


Classical Macroeconomics

The school of macroeconomic thought prior to the rise of Keynesianism.


Closing purchase

A transaction in which the purchaser's intention is to reduce or eliminate a short position in
a stock, or in a given series of options.


Co-insurance

In medical insurance, the insured person and the insurer sometimes share the cost of services under a policy in a specified ratio, for example 80% by the insurer and 20% by the insured. By this means, the cost of coverage to the insured is reduced.


Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model


Coinsurance effect

Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms decreases the probability of default on
either firm's debt.


Cold-Turkey Policy

Decreasing inflation by immediately decreasing the money growth rate to a new, low rate. Contrast with gradualism.


Collection policy

Procedures followed by a firm in attempting to collect accounts receivables.


collection policy

Procedures to collect and monitor receivables.


Combination strategy

A strategy in which a put and with the same strike price and expiration are either both
bought or both sold. Related: Straddle


Commercial Business Loan (Credit Insurance)

An agreement between a creditor and a borrower, where the creditor has loaned an amount to the borrower for business purposes.


Comparison universe

The collection of money managers of similar investment style used for assessing
relative performance of a portfolio manager.


compensation strategy

a foundation for the compensation plan that addresses the role compensation should play in the organization


computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

the integration of two or more flexible manufacturing systems through the use of a host computer and an information networking system


confrontation strategy

an organizational strategy in which company management decides to confront, rather than avoid, competition; an organizational strategy in which company management still attempts to differentiate company
products through new features or to develop a price
leadership position by dropping prices, even though management
recognizes that competitors will rapidly bring out
similar products and match price changes; an organizational
strategy in which company management identifies
and exploits current opportunities for competitive advantage
in recognition of the fact that those opportunities will
soon be eliminated


Conglomerate

A firm engaged in two or more unrelated businesses.


Conglomerate merger

A merger involving two or more firms that are in unrelated businesses.


Consol

A type of bond that has an infinite life but is not issued in the U.S. capital markets.


Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)

A federal Act
containing the requirements for offering insurance to departed employees.


Consolidation

The combining of two or more firms to form an entirely new entity.


Consolidation

A summarization of the financial statements of a parent company and
those of its subsidiaries over which it has voting control of common stock.


Consortium banks

A merchant banking subsidiary set up by several banks that may or may not be of the
same nationality. Consortium banks are common in the Euromarket and are active in loan syndication.


Contribution Rate

The percentage tax charged by a state to an employer to
cover its share of the state unemployment insurance fund.


Corporate acquisition

The acquisition of one firm by anther firm.


Corporate bonds

Debt obligations issued by corporations.


Corporate charter

A legal document creating a corporation.


Corporate finance

One of the three areas of the discipline of finance. It deals with the operation of the firm
(both the investment decision and the financing decision) from that firm's point of view.


Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.


Corporate financial planning

Financial planning conducted by a firm that encompasses preparation of both
long- and short-term financial plans.


Corporate processing float

The time that elapses between receipt of payment from a customer and the
depositing of the customer's check in the firm's bank account; the time required to process customer
payments.


Corporate tax view

The argument that double (corporate and individual) taxation of equity returns makes
debt a cheaper financing method.


Corporate taxable equivalent

rate of return required on a par bond to produce the same after-tax yield to
maturity that the premium or discount bond quoted would.


cost leadership strategy

a plan to achieve the position in a
competitive environment of being the low cost producer of
a product or provider of a service; it provides one method
of avoiding competition


cost of goods manufactured (CGM)

the total cost of the
goods completed and transferred to Finished goods Inventory
during the period


Cost of goods sold

The cost of merchandise that a company sold this year. For manufacturing companies, the cost of raw
materials, components, labor and other things that went into producing an item.


Cost of goods sold

See cost of sales.


Cost of goods sold

The cost of the items that were sold during the current period.


Cost of goods sold

The accumulated total of all costs used to create a product or service,
which is then sold. These costs fall into the general sub-categories of direct
labor, materials, and overhead.


Cost of goods sold

The charge to expense of the direct materials, direct labor, and
allocated overhead costs associated with products sold during a defined accounting
period.


Cost of Insurance

The cost of insuring a particular individual under the policy. It is based on the amount of coverage, as well as the underwriting class, age, sex and tobacco consumption of that individual.


Coupon rate

In bonds, notes or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually
paid twice a year.


Coupon Rate

The rate of interest paid on a debt security. Generally stated on an
annual basis, even if the payments are made at some other
interval.


Coupon rate

The nominal interest rate that the issuer promises to pay the
buyer of a bond.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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