Definition of NASDAQ
National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotation System. An electronic quotation
system that provides price quotations to market participants about the more actively traded common stock
issues in the OTC market. About 4,000 common stock issues are included in the nasdaq system.
The automatic quotation system of the National Association of Securities Dealers, providing brokers and dealers with price quotations for over-the-counter stocks.
Ownership shares issued by a business corporation. A business
corporation may issue more than one class of capital stock shares.
One class may give voting privileges in the election of the directors of the
corporation while the other class does not. One class (called preferred
stock) may entitle a certain amount of dividends per share before cash
dividends can be paid on the other class (usually called common stock).
Stock shares may have a minimum value at which they have to be issued
(called the par value), or stock shares can be issued for any amount
(called no-par stock). Stock shares may be traded on public markets such
as the New York Stock Exchange or over the nasdaq network. There are
about 10,000 stocks traded on public markets (although estimates vary
on this number). In this regard, I find it very interesting that there are
more than 8,000 mutual funds that invest in stocks.
The marketplace in which shares, options and futures on stocks, bonds, commodities and indices
are traded. Principal US stock exchanges are: New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), American Stock Exchange
(AMEX) and the National Association of Securities Dealers (nasdaq)
Refers to the accounting method that records increases
and decreases in assets based on changes in their market values. For
example, mutual funds revalue their securities portfolios every day based
on closing prices on the New York Stock Exchange and nasdaq. Generally
speaking, however, businesses do not use the mark-to-market method
to write up the value of their assets. A business, for instance, does not
revalue its fixed assets (buildings, machines, equipment, etc.) at the end
of each period—even though the replacement values of these assets fluctuate
over time. Having made this general comment, I should mention
that accounts receivable are written down to recognize bad debts, and a
business’s inventories asset account is written down to recognize stolen
and damaged goods as well as products that will be sold below cost. If
certain of a business’s long-term operating assets become impaired and
will not have productive utility in the future consistent with their book
values, then the assets are written off or written down, which can result
in recording a large extraordinary loss in the period.
A decentralized market (as opposed to an exchange market) where
geographically dispersed dealers are linked together by telephones and computer screens. The market is for
securities not listed on a stock or bond exchange. The nasdaq market is an OTC market for U.S. stocks.
Shares traded off an organized exchange.
Also used to refer to the nasdaq market.
A term often used instead of the more formal and correct
term—statement of financial condition. This financial statement summarizes
the assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity sources of a business at a
given moment in time. It is prepared at the end of each profit period and
whenever else it is needed. It is one of the three primary financial statements
of a business, the other two being the income statement and the
statement of cash flows. The values reported in the balance sheet are the
amounts used to determine book value per share of capital stock. Also,
the book value of an asset is the amount reported in a business’s most
recent balance sheet.
This important ratio equals the net
income for a period (usually one year) divided by the number capital
stock shares issued by a business corporation. This ratio is so important
for publicly owned business corporations that it is included in the daily
stock trading tables published by the Wall Street Journal, the New York
Times, and other major newspapers. Despite being a rather straightforward
concept, there are several technical problems in calculating
earnings per share. Actually, two EPS ratios are needed for many businesses—
basic EPS, which uses the actual number of capital shares outstanding,
and diluted EPS, which takes into account additional shares of
stock that may be issued for stock options granted by a business and
other stock shares that a business is obligated to issue in the future.
Also, many businesses report not one but two net income figures—one
before extraordinary gains and losses were recorded in the period and a
second after deducting these nonrecurring gains and losses. Many business
corporations issue more than one class of capital stock, which
makes the calculation of their earnings per share even more complicated.
That part of the capital stock of a corporation that carries voting rights and represents
the last claim on assets and dividends.
a) Of capital stock: decline in the value of capital due to its wearing out or becoming obsolete.
b) Of currency: decline in the exchange rate.
The net worth of a business, consisting of capital stock, capital (or paid-in) surplus (or retained earnings), and, occasionally, certain net worth reserves. Common equity is that part of the total net worth belonging to the common shareholders. Total equity includes preferred shareholders. The terms common stock, net worth, and common equity are frequently used interchangeably.
Current market value per share of
capital stock multiplied by the total number of capital stock shares outstanding
of a publicly owned business. This value often differs widely from
the book value of owners’ equity reported in a business’s balance sheet.
The stated value of a stock, which is recorded in the capital stock account.
Equity distributions cannot drop the value of stock below this minimum amount.
This key ratio equals the current market price
of a capital stock share divided by the earnings per share (EPS) for the
stock. The EPS used in this ratio may be the basic EPS for the stock or its
diluted EPS—you have to check to be sure about this. A low P/E may signal
an undervalued stock or may reflect a pessimistic forecast by
investors for the future earnings prospects of the business. A high P/E
may reveal an overvalued stock or reflect an optimistic forecast by
investors. The average P/E ratio for the stock market as a whole varies
considerably over time—from a low of about 8 to a high of about 30.
This is quite a range of variation, to say the least.
Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It
includes capital stock, paid in surplus, and retained earnings.
Although often considered
a financial statement, this is more in the nature of a supporting schedule
that summarizes in one place various changes in the owners’ equity
accounts of a business during the period—including the issuance and
retirement of capital stock shares, cash dividends, and other transactions
affecting owners’ equity. This statement (schedule) is very helpful
when a business has more than one class of stock shares outstanding
and when a variety of events occurred during the year that changed its
owners’ equity accounts.
"Soft" Capital Rationing
capital rationing that under certain circumstances can be violated or even viewed
as made up of targets rather than absolute constraints.
Acquisition of stock
A merger or consolidation in which an acquirer purchases the acquiree's stock.
Additional paid-in capital
Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with capital in excess of par.
Additional paid-in capital
Any payment received from investors for stock that exceeds
the par value of the stock.
additional paid-in capital
Difference between issue price and par value of stock. Also called capital surplus.
Adjustable rate preferred stock (ARPS)
Publicly traded issues that may be collateralized by mortgages and MBSs.
Aggressive Capitalization Policies
capitalizing and reporting as assets significant portions of
expenditures, the realization of which require unduly optimistic assumptions.
Aggressive Cost Capitalization
Cost capitalization that stretches the flexibility within generally
accepted accounting principles beyond its intended limits, resulting in reporting as assets
items that more reasonably should have been expensed. The purpose of this activity is likely to
alter financial results and financial position in order to create a potentially misleading impression
of a firm's business performance or financial position.
American Stock Exchange (AMEX)
The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.
Auction rate preferred stock (ARPS)
Floating rate preferred stock, the dividend on which is adjusted every
seven weeks through a Dutch auction.
authorized share capital
Maximum number of shares that the company is permitted to issue, as specified in the firm’s articles of incorporation.
Average cost of capital
A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.
Beta equation (Stocks)
The beta of a stock is determined as follows:
[(n) (sum of (xy)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of y)]
[(n) (sum of (xx)) ]-[(sum of x) (sum of x)]
where: n = # of observations (24-60 months)
x = rate of return for the S&P 500 Index
y = rate of return for the stock
BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK
The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)
Money invested in a firm.
The money, raised by selling stock or bonds or taking out loans, that you use to start, operate, and grow a business.
The shareholders’ investment in the business; the difference between the assets and liabilities
of a business.
A very broad term rooted in economic theory and referring to
money and other assets that are invested in a business or other venture
for the general purpose of earning a profit, or a return on the investment.
Generally speaking, the sources of capital for a business are
divided between debt and equity. Debt, as you know, is borrowed money
on which interest is paid. Equity is the broad term for the ownership
capital invested in a business and is most often called owners’ equity.
Owners’ equity arises from two quite different sources: (1) money or
other assets invested in the business by its owners and (2) profit earned
by the business that is retained and not distributed to its owners (called
The investment by a company’s owners in a business, plus the impact of any
accumulated gains or losses.
a) Physical capital: buildings, equipment, and any materials used to produce other goods and services in the future rather than being consumed today.
b) Financial capital: funds available for acquiring real capital.
c) Human capital: the value of the education and experience that make people more productive.
Expenditures Purchases of productive long-lived assets, in particular, items of property,
plant, and equipment.
Any asset or stock of assets, financial or physical, capable of producing income.
Net result of public and private international investment and lending activities.
That part of the balance of payments accounts that records demands for and supplies of a currency arising from purchases or sales of assets.
decision Allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.
an asset used to generate revenues or cost savings
by providing production, distribution, or service capabilities
for more than one year
A fixed asset, something that is expected to have long-term usage within
a company, and which exceeds a minimum dollar amount (known as the capitalization
limit, or cap limit).
Capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
An economic theory that describes the relationship between risk and
expected return, and serves as a model for the pricing of risky securities. The CAPM asserts that the only risk
that is priced by rational investors is systematic risk, because that risk cannot be eliminated by diversification.
The CAPM says that the expected return of a security or a portfolio is equal to the rate on a risk-free security
plus a risk premium.
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
A model for estimating equilibrium rates of return and values of
assets in financial markets; uses beta as a measure of asset risk
relative to market risk
capital asset pricing model (CAPM)
Theory of the relationship between risk and return which states that the expected risk
premium on any security equals its beta times the market risk premium.
A firm's set of planned capital expenditures.
management’s plan for investments in longterm
property, plant, and equipment
List of planned investment projects.
The process of choosing the firm's long-term capital assets.
Refers generally to analysis procedures for ranking
investments, given a limited amount of total capital that has to be allocated
among the various capital investment opportunities of a business.
The term sometimes is used interchangeably with the analysis techniques
themselves, such as calculating present value, net present value,
and the internal rate of return of investments.
The process of ranking and selecting investment alternatives and
a process of evaluating an entity’s proposed
long-range projects or courses of future activity for
the purpose of allocating limited resources to desirable
The series of steps one follows when justifying the decision to purchase
an asset, usually including an analysis of costs and related benefits, which
should include a discounted cash flow analysis of the stream of all future cash flows
resulting from the purchase of the asset.
capital budgeting decision
Decision as to which real assets the firm should acquire.
Capital Consumption Allowance
Capital Cost Allowance (CCA)
The annual depreciation expense allowed by the Canadian Income Tax Act.
The total of debt and equity, i.e. the total funds in the business.
Amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as
property, plant or equipment.
Refers to investments by a business in long-term
operating assets, including land and buildings, heavy machinery and
equipment, vehicles, tools, and other economic resources used in the
operations of a business. The term capital is used to emphasize that
these are relatively large amounts and that a business has to raise capital
for these expenditures from debt and equity sources.
The transfer of capital abroad in response to fears of political risk.
Purchase by foreigners of our assets (capital inflows) or our purchase of foreign assets (capital outflows).
When a stock is sold for a profit, it's the difference between the net sales price of securities and
their net cost, or original basis. If a stock is sold below cost, the difference is a capital loss.
The gain recognized on the sale of a capital item (fixed asset), calculated
by subtracting its sale price from its original purchase price (less the impact of any
An increase in the value of an asset.
The positive difference between the adjusted cost base of an investment held as a capital property and the proceeds of disposition you receive when you sell it. When you sell such an investment for more than you paid, you realize a capital gain.
Capital gains yield
The price change portion of a stock's return.
CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE
What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.
Capital in excess par
Amounts in excess of the par value or stated value that have been paid by the public to acquire stock in the company; synonymous with additional paid-in capital.
capital investment analysis
Refers to various techniques and procedures
used to determine or to analyze future returns from an investment
of capital in order to evaluate the capital recovery pattern and the
periodic earnings from the investment. The two basic tools for capital
investment analysis are (1) spreadsheet models (which I strongly prefer)
and (2) mathematical equations for calculating the present value or
internal rate of return of an investment. Mathematical methods suffer
from a lack of information that the decision maker ought to consider. A
spreadsheet model supplies all the needed information and has other
advantages as well.
Money used to purchase fixed assets for a business, such as land, buildings, or machinery. Also, money invested in a business on the understanding that it will be used to purchase permanent assets rather than to cover day-to-day operating expenses.
A lease obligation that has to be capitalized on the balance sheet.
A lease in which the lessee obtains some ownership rights over the asset
involved in the transaction, resulting in the recording of the asset as company property
on its general ledger.
One where substantially all of the benefits and risks of ownership are transferred to the lessee. It must be reflected on the company's balance sheet as an asset and corresponding liability.
The difference between the net cost of a security and the net sale price, if that security is sold at a loss.
The negative difference between the adjusted cost base of an investment held as a capital property and the proceeds of disposition you receive when you sell it. When you sell such an investment for less than you paid, you incur a capital loss.
The market for trading long-term debt instruments (those that mature in more than one year).
The market in which investors buy and sell shares of companies, normally associated with a stock Exchange.
A market that specializes in trading long-term, relatively high risk
The market in which savings are made available to those needing funds to undertake investment projects. A financial market in which longer-term (maturity greater than one year) bonds and stocks are traded.
Capital market efficiency
Reflects the relative amount of wealth wasted in making transactions. An efficient
capital market allows the transfer of assets with little wealth loss. See: efficient market hypothesis.
Capital market imperfections view
The view that issuing debt is generally valuable but that the firm's
optimal choice of capital structure is a dynamic process that involves the other views of capital structure (net
corporate/personal tax, agency cost, bankruptcy cost, and pecking order), which result from considerations of
asymmetric information, asymmetric taxes, and transaction costs.
Capital market line (CML)
The line defined by every combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio.
Markets for long-term financing.
A situation in which assets can easily be purchased by foreigners.
Placing one or more limits on the amount of new investment undertaken by a firm, either
by using a higher cost of capital, or by setting a maximum on parts of, and/or the entirety of, the capital
a condition that exists when there is an
upper-dollar constraint on the amount of capital available
to commit to capital asset acquisition
Limit set on the amount of funds available for investment.
Refers to recouping, or regaining, invested capital over
the life of an investment. The pattern of period-by-period capital recovery
is very important. In brief, capital recovery is the return of capital—
not the return on capital, which refers to the rate of earnings on the
amount of capital invested during the period. The returns from an
investment have to be sufficient to provide for both recovery of capital
and an adequate rate of earnings on unrecovered capital period by
period. Sorting out how much capital is recovered each period is relatively
easy if you use a spreadsheet model for capital investment analysis.
In contrast, using a mathematical method of analysis does not
provide this period-by-period capital recovery information, which is a
The makeup of the liabilities and stockholders' equity side of the balance sheet, especially
the ratio of debt to equity and the mixture of short and long maturities.
The combination of debt, preferred stock, and common stock used
by a company to provide capital for the purchase of its fixed
Firm’s mix of long-term financing.
The mix of the various types of debt and equity capital maintained by a firm. The more debt capital a firm has in its capital structure, the more highly leveraged the firm is considered to be.
capital structure, or capitalization
Terms that refer to the combination of
capital sources that a business has tapped for investing in its assets—in
particular, the mix of its interest-bearing debt and its owners’ equity. In a
more sweeping sense, the terms also include appendages and other features
of the basic debt and equity instruments of a business. Such things
as stock options, stock warrants, and convertible features of preferred
stock and notes payable are included in the more inclusive sense of the
terms, as well as any debt-based and equity-based financial derivatives
issued by the business.
Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.
An economic system in which the marketplace, through the pricing mechanism, determines the allocation and distribution of scarce goods and services, with a minimum of government involvement.
The debt and/or equity mix that fund a firm's assets.
The total amount of debt and equity issued by a company.
A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the manager purchases a
number of the largest-capitalized names in the index stock in proportion to their capitalization.
capitalization of costs
When a cost is recorded originally as an increase
to an asset account, it is said to be capitalized. This means that the outlay
is treated as a capital expenditure, which becomes part of the total
cost basis of the asset. The alternative is to record the cost as an expense
immediately in the period the cost is incurred. capitalized costs refer
mainly to costs that are recorded in the long-term operating assets of a
business, such as buildings, machines, equipment, tools, and so on.
A discount rate used to find the present value of a series of future cash receipts. Sometimes called discount rate.
Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.
A table showing the capitalization of a firm, which typically includes the amount of
capital obtained from each source - long-term debt and common equity - and the respective capitalization
To make a payment that might otherwise be an expense (in the Profit and Loss account) an asset
(in the Balance Sheet).
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