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Definition of LEAPS

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Long-term equity anticipation securities. Long-term options.

Related Terms:

All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.


Arrangements whereby customers who pay before the final date may be entitled to deduct a
normal rate of interest.

Asset/equity ratio

The ratio of total assets to stockholder equity.

BAN (Bank anticipation notes)

Notes issued by states and municipalities to obtain interim financing for
projects that will eventually be funded Long term through the sale of a bond issue.

Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.

Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.

Book-entry securities

The Treasury and federal agencies are moving to a book-entry system in which securities are not represented by engraved pieces of paper but are maintained in computerized records at the
Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep records of the securities they own as well as those they
are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, engraved
securities do exist somewhere in quite a few cases. These securities do not move from holder to holder but are
usually kept in a central clearinghouse or by another agent.

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Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.

Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.

Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.

Dealer options

Over-the-counter options, such as those offered by government and mortgage-backed
securities dealers.

Debt/equity ratio

Indicator of financial leverage. Compares assets provided by creditors to assets provided
by shareholders. Determined by dividing Long-term debt by common stockholder equity.

Debt securities

IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
other instruments.

Deferred equity

A common term for convertible bonds because of their equity component and the
expectation that the bond will ultimately be converted into shares of common stock.

Delivery options

The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality
option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options make the buyer uncertain of which
Treasury Bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered.

Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models

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Discount securities

Non-interest-bearing money market instruments that are issued at a discount and
redeemed at maturity for full face value, e.g. U.S. Treasury bills.


Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.

Dual syndicate equity offering

An international equity placement where the offering is split into two
tranches - domestic and foreign - and each tranche is handled by a separate lead manager.


Represents ownership interest in a firm. Also the residual dollar value of a futures trading account,
assuming its liquidation at the going market price.

Equity cap

An agreement in which one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the other at
specific time periods if a designated stock market benchmark is greater than a predetermined level.

Equity claim

Also called a residual claim, a claim to a share of earnings after debt obligation have been

Equity collar

The simultaneous purchase of an equity floor and sale of an equity cap.

Equity contribution agreement

An agreement to contribute equity to a project under certain specified

Equity floor

An agreement in which one party agrees to pay the other at specific time periods if a specific
stock market benchmark is less than a predetermined level.

Equity kicker

Used to refer to warrants because they are usually issued attached to privately placed bonds.

Equity market

Related:Stock market

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Equity multiplier

Total assets divided by total common stockholders' equity; the amount of total assets per
dollar of stockholders' equity.

Equity options

securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock.

Equity swap

A swap in which the cash flows that are exchanged are based on the total return on some stock
market index and an interest rate (either a fixed rate or a floating rate). Related: interest rate swap.

Equity-linked policies

Related: Variable life


Those holding shares of the firm's equity.

Euroequity issues

securities sold in the Euromarket. That is, securities initially sold to investors
simultaneously in several national markets by an international syndicate. Euromarket.
Related: external market

Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.

Exempt securities

Instruments exempt from the registration requirements of the securities Act of 1933 or the
margin requirements of the SEC Act of 1934. Such securities include government bonds, agencies, munis,
commercial paper, and private placements.

Federal agency securities

securities issued by corporations and agencies created by the U.S. government,
such as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and Ginnie Mae.

Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or

Foreign equity market

That portion of the domestic equity market that represents issues floated by foreign companies.

GEMs (growing-equity mortgages)

Mortgages in which annual increases in monthly payments are used to
reduce outstanding principal and to shorten the term of the loan.

Government securities

Negotiable U.S. Treasury securities.

Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.

Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


Typically 1-10 years.


Investment through a financial institution. Related: disintermediation.

Investor's equity

The balance of a margin account. Related: buying on margin, initial margin requirement.

Leveraged equity

Stock in a firm that relies on financial leverage. Holders of leveraged equity face the
benefits and costs of using debt.

Liquidity theory of the term structure

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward
rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a
liquidity premium.


One who has bought a contract(s) to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this
position through an offsetting sale; the opposite of short.

Long bonds

Bonds with a Long current maturity. The "Long bond" is the 30-year U.S. government bond.

Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a Long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon periods, usually the first, is Longer than the other periods or the standard period.

Long hedge

The purchase of a futures contract(s) in anticipation of actual purchases in the cash market. Used
by processors or exporters as protection against an advance in the cash price. Related: Hedge, short hedge

Long position

An options position where a person has executed one or more option trades where the net
result is that they are an "owner" or holder of options (i. e. the number of contracts bought exceeds the
number of contracts sold).
Occurs when an individual owns securities. An owner of 1,000 shares of stock is said to be "Long the stock."
Related: Short position

Long run

A period of time in which all costs are variable; greater than one year.
Long straddle A straddle in which a Long position is taken in both a put and call option.


In accounting information, one year or greater.

Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.

Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.

Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows Long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing Long-term debt by the sum of Long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.

Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of Long-term debt to total capitalization.

Long-term financial plan

Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.

Long-term liabilities

Amount owed for leases, bond repayment and other items due after 1 year.

Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing Long-term debt to shareholders' equity.

Long bonds

Bonds with a Long current maturity. The "Long bond" is the 30-year U.S. government bond.

Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a Long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon
periods, usually the first, is Longer than the other periods or the standard period.

Long run

A period of time in which all costs are variable; greater than one year.

Long straddle

A straddle in which a Long position is taken in both a put and call option.

Manufactured housing securities (MHSs)

Loans on manufactured homes - that is, factory-built or
prefabricated housing, including mobile homes.

Margin requirement (Options)

The amount of cash an uncovered (naked) option writer is required to
deposit and maintain to cover his daily position valuation and reasonably foreseeable intra-day price changes.

Medium-term note

A corporate debt instrument that is continuously offered to investors over a period of
time by an agent of the issuer. Investors can select from the following maturity bands: 9 months to 1 year,
more than 1 year to 18 months, more than 18 months to 2 years, etc., up to 30 years.

Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation

A wholly owned subsidiary of the Midwest Stock
Exchange that operates a clearing service for the comparison, netting, and margining of agency-guaranteed
MBSs transacted for forward delivery.

Mortgage-backed securities

securities backed by a pool of mortgage loans.

Options contract

A contract that, in exchange for the option price, gives the option buyer the right, but not
the obligation, to buy (or sell) a financial asset at the exercise price from (or to) the option seller within a
specified time period, or on a specified date (expiration date).

Options contract multiple

A constant, set at $100, which when multiplied by the cash index value gives the
dollar value of the stock index underlying an option. That is, dollar value of the underlying stock index = cash
index value x $100 (the options contract multiple).

Options on physicals

Interest rate options written on fixed-income securities, as opposed to those written on
interest rate futures contracts.

Other long term liabilities

Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.

Pass-through securities

A pool of fixed-income securities backed by a package of assets (i.e. mortgages)
where the holder receives the principal and interest payments. Related: mortgage pass-through security

Preferred equity redemption stock (PERC)

Preferred stock that converts automatically into equity at a
stated date. A limit is placed on the value of the shares the investor receives.

Project loan securities

securities backed by a variety of FHA-insured loan types - primarily multi-family
apartment buildings, hospitals, and nursing homes.

Public Securities Administration (PSA)

The trade association for primary dealers in U.S. government
securities, including MBSs.

Rate anticipation swaps

An exchange of bonds in a portfolio for new bonds that will achieve the target
portfolio duration, based on the investor's assumptions about future changes in interest rates.

Return on equity (ROE)

Indicator of profitability. Determined by dividing net income for the past 12
months by common stockholder equity (adjusted for stock splits). Result is shown as a percentage. Investors
use ROE as a measure of how a company is using its money. ROE may be decomposed into return on assets
(ROA) multiplied by financial leverage (total assets/total equity).

Securities & Exchange Commission

The SEC is a federal agency that regulates the markets.

Securities analysts

Related:financial analysts

Shareholders' equity

This is a company's total assets minus total liabilities. A company's net worth is the
same thing.

Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.

Short-term investment services

Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.

Short-term solvency ratios

Ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term
obligations as they come due, including
1) the current ratio,
2) the acid-test ratio,
3) the inventory turnover ratio, and
4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.

Short-term tax exempts

Short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.

Stockholder equity

Balance sheet item that includes the book value of ownership in the corporation. It
includes capital stock, paid in surplus, and retained earnings.

Stockholder's equity

The residual claims that stockholders have against a firm's assets, calculated by
subtracting total liabilities from total assets.

Stratified equity indexing

A method of constructing a replicating portfolio in which the stocks in the index
are classified into stratum, and each stratum is represented in the portfolio.

Stripped mortgage-backed securities (SMBSs)

securities that redistribute the cash flows from the
underlying generic MBS collateral into the principal and interest components of the MBS to enhance their use
in meeting special needs of investors.

TANs (tax anticipation notes)

Tax anticipation notes issued by states or municipalities to finance current
operations in anticipation of future tax receipts.

Tax anticipation bills (TABs)

Special bills that the Treasury occasionally issues that mature on corporate
quarterly income tax dates and can be used at face value by corporations to pay their tax liabilities.

Term bonds

Often referred to as bullet-maturity bonds or simply bullet bonds, bonds whose principal is
payable at maturity. Related: serial bonds

Term Fed Funds

Fed Funds sold for a period of time Longer than overnight.

Term life insurance

A contract that provides a death benefit but no cash build-up or investment component.
The premium remains constant only for a specified term of years, and the policy is usually renewable at the
end of each term.

Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.

Term insurance

Provides a death benefit only, no build-up of cash value.

Term repo

A repurchase agreement with a term of more than one day.
term structure of interest rates
Relationship between interest rates on bonds of different maturities usually
depicted in the form of a graph often depicted as a yield curve. Harvey shows that inverted term structures
(Long rates below short rates) have preceded every recession over the past 30 years.

Term to maturity

The time remaining on a bond's life, or the date on which the debt will cease to exist and
the borrower will have completely paid off the amount borrowed. See: Maturity.







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