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Definition of Issue Age

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Issue Age

age of an insured as at the policy issue date, using "age nearest" next birthday formula.



Related Terms:

Agencies

Federal agency securities.


Agency bank

A form of organization commonly used by foreign banks to enter the U.S. market. An agency
bank cannot accept deposits or extend loans in its own name; it acts as agent for the parent bank.


Agency basis

A means of compensating the broker of a program trade solely on the basis of commission
established through bids submitted by various brokerage firms. agency incentive arrangement. A means of
compensating the broker of a program trade using benchmark prices for issues to be traded in determining
commissions or fees.


Agency cost view

The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in
which total agency costs are at a minimum with some, but less than 100%, debt financing.


Agency costs

The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal.



Agency pass-throughs

Mortgage pass-through securities whose principal and interest payments are
guaranteed by government agencies, such as the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae"), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation ("Freddie Mac") and Federal National Mortgage Association ("Fannie Mae").


Agency problem

Conflicts of interest among stockholders, bondholders, and managers.


Issue Age Image 2

Agency theory

The analysis of principal-agent relationships, wherein one person, an agent, acts on behalf of
anther person, a principal.


Agent

The decision-maker in a principal-agent relationship.


Alternative mortgage instruments

Variations of mortgage instruments such as adjustable-rate and variablerate
mortgages, graduated-payment mortgages, reverse-annuity mortgages, and several seldom-used
variations.


Annual percentage rate (APR)

The periodic rate times the number of periods in a year. For example, a 5%
quarterly return has an APR of 20%.


Annual percentage yield (APY)

The effective, or true, annual rate of return. The APY is the rate actually
earned or paid in one year, taking into account the affect of compounding. The APY is calculated by taking
one plus the periodic rate and raising it to the number of periods in a year. For example, a 1% per month rate
has an APY of 12.68% (1.01^12).


Arbitrage

The simultaneous buying and selling of a security at two different prices in two different markets,
resulting in profits without risk. Perfectly efficient markets present no arbitrage opportunities. Perfectly
efficient markets seldom exist.


Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)

An alternative model to the capital asset pricing model developed by
Stephen Ross and based purely on arbitrage arguments.


Arbitrage-free option-pricing models

Yield curve option-pricing models.


Arbitrageurs

People who search for and exploit arbitrage opportunities.


Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.


Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.



Asset-coverage test

A bond indenture restriction that permits additional borrowing on if the ratio of assets to
debt does not fall below a specified minimum.


Average

An arithmetic mean of selected stocks intended to represent the behavior of the market or some
component of it. One good example is the widely quoted Dow Jones Industrial Average, which adds the
current prices of the 30 DJIA's stocks, and divides the results by a predetermined number, the divisor.


Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.


Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.


Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).


Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.


Average life

Also referred to as the weighted-average life (WAL). The average number of years that each
dollar of unpaid principal due on the mortgage remains outstanding. Average life is computed as the weighted average time to the receipt of all future cash flows, using as the weights the dollar amounts of the principal
paydowns.


Average maturity

The average time to maturity of securities held by a mutual fund. Changes in interest rates
have greater impact on funds with longer average life.


Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a
large number of trades.


Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.



Average tax rate

Taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.


Bellwether issues

Related:Benchmark issues.


Benchmark issues

Also called on-the-run or current coupon issues or bellwether issues. In the secondary
market, it's the most recently auctioned Treasury issues for each maturity.


Bottom-up equity management style

A management style that de-emphasizes the significance of economic
and market cycles, focusing instead on the analysis of individual stocks.


Canadian agencies

agency banks established by Canadian banks in the U.S.


Cash flow coverage ratio

The number of times that financial obligations (for interest, principal payments,
preferred stock dividends, and rental payments) are covered by earnings before interest, taxes, rental
payments, and depreciation.


Cash management bill

Very short maturity bills that the Treasury occasionally sells because its cash
balances are down and it needs money for a few days.


Cheapest to deliver issue

The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a
seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date.


Closed-end mortgage

Mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.


Collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO)

A security backed by a pool of pass-throughs , structured so that
there are several classes of bondholders with varying maturities, called tranches. The principal payments from
the underlying pool of pass-through securities are used to retire the bonds on a priority basis as specified in
the prospectus.
Related: mortgage pass-through security


Conventional mortgage

A loan based on the credit of the borrower and on the collateral for the mortgage.


Corporate financial management

The application of financial principals within a corporation to create and
maintain value through decision making and proper resource management.


Coverage ratios

Ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of
meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed charge coverage ratio.


Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for
dollars.


Currency arbitrage

Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by
buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market.


Current issue

In Treasury securities, the most recently auctioned issue. Trading is more active in current
issues than in off-the-run issues.


Current-coupon issues

Related: Benchmark issues


Debt leverage

The amplification of the return earned on equity when an investment or firm is financed
partially with borrowed money.


Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.


Dow Jones industrial average

This is the best known U.S.index of stocks. It contains 30 stocks that trade on
the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest
U.S.companies are performing. There are thousands of investment indexes around the world for stocks,
bonds, currencies and commodities.


Dual-currency issues

Eurobonds that pay coupon interest in one currency but pay the principal in a different
currency.


Euroequity issues

Securities sold in the Euromarket. That is, securities initially sold to investors
simultaneously in several national markets by an international syndicate. Euromarket.
Related: external market


Federal agency securities

Securities issued by corporations and agencies created by the U.S. government,
such as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and Ginnie Mae.


Federal credit agencies

agencies of the federal government set up to supply credit to various classes of
institutions and individuals, e.g. S&Ls, small business firms, students, farmers, and exporters.


Financial leverage

Use of debt to increase the expected return on equity. Financial leverage is measured by
the ratio of debt to debt plus equity.


Financial leverage clientele

A group of investors who have a preference for investing in firms that adhere to
a particular financial leverage policy.


Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.


Fiscal agency agreement

An alternative to a bond trust deed. Unlike the trustee, the fiscal agent acts as an
agent of the borrower.


Fixed-charge coverage ratio

A measure of a firm's ability to meet its fixed-charge obligations: the ratio of
(net earnings before taxes plus interest charges paid plus long-term lease payments) to (interest charges paid
plus long-term lease payments).


Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)

A Congressionally chartered corporation that
purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and
securitizes these mortgages for sale into the capital markets.


Garmen-Kohlhagen option pricing model

A widely used model for pricing foreign currency options.


GEMs (growing-equity mortgages)

Mortgages in which annual increases in monthly payments are used to
reduce outstanding principal and to shorten the term of the loan.


GMCs (guaranteed mortgage certificates)

First issued by Freddie Mac in 1975, GMCs, like PCs, represent
undivided interest in specified conventional whole loans and participations previously purchased by Freddie Mac.


Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.


Graduated-payment mortgages (GPMs)

A type of stepped-payment loan in which the borrower's payments
are initially lower than those on a comparable level-rate mortgage. The payments are gradually increased over
a predetermined period (usually 3,5, or 7 years) and then are fixed at a level-pay schedule which will be
higher than the level-pay amortization of a level-pay mortgage originated at the same time. The difference
between what the borrower actually pays and the amount required to fully amortize the mortgage is added to
the unpaid principal balance.


Group rotation manager

A top-down manager who infers the phases of the business cycle and allocates
assets accordingly.


Growth manager

A money manager who seeks to buy stocks that are typically selling at relatively high P/E
ratios due to high earnings growth, with the expectation of continued high or higher earnings growth.


Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)

Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.


Homemade leverage

Idea that as long as individuals borrow (or lend) on the same terms as the firm, they can
duplicate the affects of corporate leverage on their own. Thus, if levered firms are priced too high, rational
investors will simply borrow on personal accounts to buy shares in unlevered firms.


Index arbitrage

An investment/trading strategy that exploits divergences between actual and theoretical
futures prices.


Interest coverage ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This
ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.


Interest coverage test

A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional long-term debt if the issuer's
interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum.


Investment manager

Also called a portfolio manager and money manager, the individual who manages a
portfolio of investments.


Issue

A particular financial asset.


Issued share capital

Total amount of shares that are in issue. Related: outstanding shares.


Issuer

An entity that issues a financial asset.


Lead manager

The commercial or investment bank with the primary responsibility for organizing syndicated
bank credit or bond issue. The lead manager recruits additional lending or underwriting banks, negotiates
terms of the issue with the issuer, and assesses market conditions.


Leakage

Release of information to some persons before official public announcement.


Leverage

The use of debt financing.


Leverage clientele

A group of shareholders who, because of their personal leverage, seek to invest in
corporations that maintain a compatible degree of corporate leverage.


Leverage ratios

Measures of the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firm's ability
to pay financing charges. Value of firm's debt to the total value of the firm.


Leverage rebalancing

Making transactions to adjust (rebalance) a firm's leverage ratio back to its target.


Leveraged beta

The beta of a leveraged required return; that is, the beta as adjusted for the degree of
leverage in the firm's capital structure.


Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.


Leveraged equity

Stock in a firm that relies on financial leverage. Holders of leveraged equity face the
benefits and costs of using debt.


Leveraged lease

A lease arrangement under which the lessor borrows a large proportion of the funds needed
to purchase the asset and grants the lender a lien on the assets and a pledge of the lease payments to secure the
borrowing.


Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.


Leveraged required return

The required return on an investment when the investment is financed partially by debt.


Leverage

he use of debt financing.


Leveraged portfolio

A portfolio that includes risky assets purchased with funds borrowed.


Managed float

Also known as "dirty" float, this is a system of floating exchange rates with central bank
intervention to reduce currency fluctuations.


Management/closely held shares

Percentage of shares held by persons closely related to a company, as
defined by the Securities and exchange commission. Part of these percentages often is included in
Institutional Holdings -- making the combined total of these percentages over 100. There is overlap as
institutions sometimes acquire enough stock to be considered by the SEC to be closely allied to the company.


Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.


Management fee

An investment advisory fee charged by the financial advisor to a fund based on the fund's
average assets, but sometimes determined on a sliding scale that declines as the dollar amount of the fund increases.


Managerial decisions

Decisions concerning the operation of the firm, such as the choice of firm size, firm
growth rates, and employee compensation.


Money management

Related: Investment management.


Money manager

Related: Investment manager.


Mortgage

A loan secured by the collateral of some specified real estate property which obliges the borrower
to make a predetermined series of payments.


Mortgage bond

A bond in which the issuer has granted the bondholders a lien against the pledged assets.
Collateral trust bonds


Mortgage duration

A modification of standard duration to account for the impact on duration of MBSs of
changes in prepayment speed resulting from changes in interest rates. Two factors are employed: one that
reflects the impact of changes in prepayment speed or price.


Mortgage pass-through security

Also called a passthrough, a security created when one or more mortgage
holders form a collection (pool) of mortgages sells shares or participation certificates in the pool. The cash
flow from the collateral pool is "passed through" to the security holder as monthly payments of principal,
interest, and prepayments. This is the predominant type of MBS traded in the secondary market.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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