Financial Terms
Investment value

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Definition of Investment value

Investment Value Image 1

Investment value

Related:straight value.

Related Terms:

Net present value of future investments

The present value of the total sum of NPVs expected to result from
all of the firm's future investments.

Straight value

Also called investment value, the value of a convertible security without the con-version option.

NPV (net present value of cash flows)

Same as PV, but usually includes a subtraction for an initial cash outlay.

PV (present value of cash flows)

the value in today’s dollars of cash flows that occur in different time periods.
present value factor equal to the formula 1/(1 - r)n, where n is the number of years from the valuation date to the cash flow and r is the discount rate.
For business valuation, n should usually be midyear, i.e., n = 0.5, 1.5, . . .

Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.

Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

Investment Value Image 2

Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

Carrying value

Book value.

Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.

Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the Long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the

Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money

Expected return on investment

The return one can expect to earn on an investment. See: capital asset
pricing model.

Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.

Face value

See: Par value.

Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

Foreign direct investment (FDI)

The acquisition abroad of physical assets such as plant and equipment, with
operating control residing in the parent corporation.

Future investment opportunities

The options to identify additional, more valuable investment opportunities
in the future that result from a current opportunity or operation.

Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

Guaranteed investment contract (GIC)

A pure investment product in which a life company agrees, for a
single premium, to pay the principal amount of a predetermined annual crediting (interest) rate over the life of
the investment, all of which is paid at the maturity date.

Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.

Investment analysts

Related: financial analysts

Investment bank

Financial intermediaries who perform a variety of services, including aiding in the sale of
securities, facilitating mergers and other corporate reorganizations, acting as brokers to both individual and
institutional clients, and trading for their own accounts. Underwriters.

Investment decisions

Decisions concerning the asset side of a firm's balance sheet, such as the decision to
offer a new product.

Investment grade bonds

A bond that is assigned a rating in the top four categories by commercial credit
rating companies. For example, S&P classifies investment grade bonds as BBB or higher, and Moodys'
classifies investment grade bonds as Ba or higher. Related: High-yield bond.

Investment income

The revenue from a portfolio of invested assets.
investment management Also called portfolio management and money management, the process of
managing money.

Investment manager

Also called a portfolio manager and money manager, the individual who manages a
portfolio of investments.

Investment product line (IPML)

The line of required returns for investment projects as a function of beta
(nondiversifiable risk).

Investment tax credit

Proportion of new capital investment that can be used to reduce a company's tax bill
(abolished in 1986).

Investment trust

A closed-end fund regulated by the investment Company Act of 1940. These funds have a
fixed number of shares which are traded on the secondary markets similarly to corporate stocks. The market
price may exceed the net asset value per share, in which case it is considered at a "premium." When the
market price falls below the NAV/share, it is at a "discount." Many closed-end funds are of a specialized
nature, with the portfolio representing a particular industry, country, etc. These funds are usually listed on US
and foreign exchanges.


As a discipline, the study of financial securities, such as stocks and bonds, from the investor's
viewpoint. This area deals with the firm's financing decision, but from the other side of the transaction.

Legal investments

investments that a regulated entity is permitted to make under the rules and regulations
that govern its investing.

Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.

Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

Maturity value

Related: par value.

Mutually exclusive investment decisions

investment decisions in which the acceptance of a project
precludes the acceptance of one or more alternative projects.

Net adjusted present value

The adjusted present value minus the initial cost of an investment.

Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.

Net book value

The current book value of an asset or liability; that is, its original book value net of any
accounting adjustments such as depreciation.

Net investment

Gross, or total, investment minus depreciation.

Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.

Net present value of growth opportunities

A model valuing a firm in which net present value of new
investment opportunities is explicitly examined.

Net present value rule

An investment is worth making if it has a positive NPV. Projects with negative NPVs
should be rejected.

Net salvage value

The after-tax net cash flow for terminating the project.

Original face value

The principal amount of the mortgage as of its issue date.

Par value

Also called the maturity value or face value, the amount that the issuer agrees to pay at the maturity date.

Parity value

Related:conversion value

Passive investment strategy

See: passive management.

Passive investment management

Buying a well-diversified portfolio to represent a broad-based market
index without attempting to search out mispriced securities.

Present value

The amount of cash today that is equivalent in value to a payment, or to a stream of payments,
to be received in the future.

Present value factor

Factor used to calculate an estimate of the present value of an amount to be received in
a future period.

Present value of growth opportunities (NPV)

Net present value of investments the firm is expected to make
in the future.

Price value of a basis point (PVBP)

Also called the dollar value of a basis point, a measure of the change in
the price of the bond if the required yield changes by one basis point.

Reinvestment rate

The rate at which an investor assumes interest payments made on a debt security can be
reinvested over the life of that security.

Reinvestment risk

The risk that proceeds received in the future will have to be reinvested at a lower potential
interest rate.

REIT (real estate investment trust)

Real estate investment trust, which is similar to a closed-end mutual
fund. REITs invest in real estate or loans secured by real estate and issue shares in such investments.

Relative value

The attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one instrument relative to
another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.

REMIC (real estate mortgage investment conduit)

A pass-through tax entity that can hold mortgages
secured by any type of real property and issue multiple classes of ownership interests to investors in the form
of pass-through certificates, bonds, or other legal forms. A financing vehicle created under the Tax Reform
Act of 1986.

Replacement value

Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.

Residual value

Usually refers to the value of a lessor's property at the time the lease expires.

Return on investment (ROI)

Generally, book income as a proportion of net book value.

Salvage value

Scrap value of plant and equipment.

Short-term investment services

Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.

Standardized value

Also called the normal deviate, the distance of one data point from the mean, divided by
the standard deviation of the distribution.

Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.

Time value of an option

The portion of an option's premium that is based on the amount of time remaining
until the expiration date of the option contract, and that the underlying components that determine the value of
the option may change during that time. Time value is generally equal to the difference between the premium
and the intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

Time value of money

The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar
received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.

Underinvestment problem

The mirror image of the asset substitution problem, wherein stockholders refuse
to invest in low-risk assets to avoid shifting wealth from themselves to the debtholders.
The "something" that the parties agree to exchange in a derivative contract.

Unit investment trust

Money invested in a portfolio whose composition is fixed for the life of the fund.
Shares in a unit trust are called redeemable trust certificates, and they are sold at a premium above net asset value.

Utility value

The welfare a given investor assigns to an investment with a particular return and risk.

Value-added tax

Method of indirect taxation whereby a tax is levied at each stage of production on the value
added at that specific stage.

Value-at-Risk model (VAR)

Procedure for estimating the probability of portfolio losses exceeding some
specified proportion based on a statistical analysis of historical market price trends, correlations, and volatilities.

Value additivity principal

Prevails when the value of a whole group of assets exactly equals the sum of the
values of the individual assets that make up the group of assets. Stated differently, the principle that the net
present value of a set of independent projects is just the sum of the net present values of the individual projects.

Value date

In the market for Eurodollar deposits and foreign exchange, value date refers to the delivery date
of funds traded. Normally it is on spot transactions two days after a transaction is agreed upon and the future
date in the case of a forward foreign exchange trade.

Value dating

Refers to when value or credit is given for funds transferred between banks.

Value manager

A manager who seeks to buy stocks that are at a discount to their "fair value" and sell them at
or in excess of that value. Often a value stock is one with a low price to book value ratio.

Zero-investment portfolio

A portfolio of zero net value established by buying and shorting component
securities, usually in the context of an arbitrage strategy.


An asset’s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation.


The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(Stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)


What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.


An arbitrary value that a company may assign to its stock. Par value has no relationship to what the stock is selling for on the open market.


In its most basic form, the rate of return equals net income divided by the amount of money invested. It can be applied to a particular product or piece of equipment, or to a business as a whole.


The amount management estimates a piece of equipment will be worth at the end of its useful life, either as a trade-in or if it were sold for scrap.

Cash value added (CVA)

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an
investment to the initial capital investment.

Economic Value Added (EVA)

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.

Investment centre

A division or unit of an organization that is responsible for achieving an adequate return on
the capital invested in the division or unit.

Net present value (NPV)

A discounted cash flow technique used for investment appraisal that calculates the present value of future cash flows and deducts the initial capital investment.

Return on investment (ROI)

The net profit after tax as a percentage of the shareholders’ investment in the business.

Shareholder value

Increasing the value of the business to its shareholders, achieved through a combination of
dividend and capital growth in the value of the shares.

Value-based management

A variety of approaches that emphasize increasing shareholder value as the primary goal of every business.

No par value stock

Stock issued by the company that does not have an arbitrary value (par value) assigned to it.

Par value

An arbitrary value assigned by the company to each share of stock; it is used in the accounting for the sale of stock and in some jurisdictions for calculating taxes.







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