Financial Terms
Form I-9

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Definition of Form I-9

Form I-9 Image 1

Form I-9

The Employment Eligibility Verification form, which must be filled
out for all new employees to establish their identity and eligibility to work.

Related Terms:

All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.

All or none

Requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.

All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.

All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.

Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.

Asymmetric information

Information that is known to some people but not to other people.

Balance sheet identity

Total Assets = Total Liabilities + Total Stockholders' Equity

Form I-9 Image 1

Balloon maturity

Any large principal payment due at maturity for a bond or loan with or without a a sinking
fund requirement.

BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.

Borrower fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, the risk that prospective borrowers of loans committed to be
closed will elect to withdraw from the contract.


A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its previous high price) or drop
below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing
move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator.


Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.


An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.

Call an option

To exercise a call option.

Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.

Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.

Form I-9 Image 2

Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.

Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.

Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.

Call protection

A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be

Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.

Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.

Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.

Capital allocation

decision allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

Chinese wall

Communication barrier between financiers (investment bankers) and traders. This barrier is
erected to prevent the sharing of inside information that bankers are likely to have.

Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.

Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.

Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.

Customary payout ratios

A range of payout ratios that is typical based on an analysis of comparable firms.

Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.

Deferred call

A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. During this
period the bond is said to be call protected.

Dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.

Down-and-out option

Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.

Dynamic asset allocation

An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in
response to -changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example.

Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.

Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

Fallout risk

A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be
originated are set at the same time as the sale terms are set. The risk is that either of the two parties, borrower
or investor, fails to close and the loan "falls out" of the pipeline.

Feasible target payout ratios

Payout ratios that are consistent with the availability of excess funds to make
cash dividend payments.

Federally related institutions

Arms of the federal government that are exempt from SEC registration and
whose securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (with the exception of the
Tennessee Valley Authority).


With CMOs, the start of the cash flow cycle for the cash flow window.

First-In-First-Out (FIFO)

A method of valuing the cost of goods sold that uses the cost of the oldest item in
inventory first.

Flat benefit formula

Method used to determine a participant's benefits in a defined benefit plan by
multiplying months of service by a flat monthly benefit.

Formula basis

A method of selling a new issue of common stock in which the SEC declares the registration
statement effective on the basis of a price formula rather than on a specific range.

Full-payout lease

See: financial lease.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)

A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.

Glass-Steagall Act

A 1933 act in which Congress forbade commercial banks to own, underwrite, or deal in
corporate stock and corporate bonds.

Implied call

The right of the homeowner to prepay, or call, the mortgage at any time.

Information asymmetry

A situation involving information that is known to some, but not all, participants.

Information Coefficient (IC)

The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.

Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.

Information services

Organizations that furnish investment and other types of information, such as
information that helps a firm monitor its cash position.

Information-content effect

The rise in the stock price following the dividend signal.

Informational efficiency

The speed and accuracy with which prices reflect new information.

Informationless trades

Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.

Information-motivated trades

Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
information not currently reflected in the stock's price.

Input-output tables

Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other
industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output.

Insider information

Relevant information about a company that has not yet been made public. It is illegal for
holders of this information to make trades based on it, however received.

Installment sale

The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments).

Internally efficient market

Operationally efficient market.

Investor fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, risk that occurs when the originator commits loan terms to the
borrowers and gets commitments from investors at the time of application, or if both sets of terms are made at closing.

Irrational call option

The implied call imbedded in the MBS. Identified as irrational because the call is
sometimes not exercised when it is in the money (interest rates are below the threshold to refinance).
Sometimes exercised when not in the money (home sold without regard to the relative level of interest rates).

Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)

A method of valuing inventory that uses the cost of the most recent item in
inventory first.

Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.

LIFO (Last-in-first-out)

The last-in-first-out inventory valuation methodology. A method of valuing
inventory that uses the cost of the most recent item in inventory first.


With PAC bond CMO classes, the period before the PAC sinking fund becomes effective. With
multifamily loans, the period of time during which prepayment is prohibited.

Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.

Margin call

A demand for additional funds because of adverse price movement. Maintenance margin
requirement, security deposit maintenance
Margin of safety With respect to working capital management, the difference between 1) the amount of longterm
financing, and 2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.

Mutually exclusive investment decisions

Investment decisions in which the acceptance of a project
precludes the acceptance of one or more alternative projects.

Net working capital

Current assets minus current liabilities. Often simply referred to as working capital.

Netting out

To get or bring in as a net; to clear as profit.

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the
largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in new York City

New-issues market

The market in which a new issue of securities is first sold to investors.

New money

In a Treasury auction, the amount by which the par value of the securities offered exceeds that of
those maturing.

Non-parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which yields do not change by the same
number of basis points for every maturity. Related: Parallel shift in the yield curve.

Normal annuity form

The manner in which retirement benefits are paid out.


The method of trading used at futures exchanges, typically involving calling out the specific
details of a buy or sell order, so that the information is available to all traders.

Operationally efficient market

Also called an internally efficient market, one in which investors can obtain
transactions services that reflect the true costs associated with furnishing those services.

Out-of-the-money option

A call option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is greater than the market price
of the underlying security. A put option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is less than the market price of
the underlying security.

Outright rate

Actual forward rate expressed in dollars per currency unit, or vice versa.
he practice of purchasing a significant percentage of intermediate components from outside suppliers.

Outstanding share capital

Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held in the company's treasury.

Outstanding shares

Shares that are currently owned by investors.


When a security is expected to appreciate at a rate faster than the overall market.

Parallel loan

A process whereby two companies in different countries borrow each other's currency for a
specific period of time, and repay the other's currency at an agreed maturity for the purpose of reducing
foreign exchange risk. Also referred to as back-to-back loans.

Parallel shift in the yield curve

A shift in the yield curve in which the change in the yield on all maturities is
the same number of basis points. In other words, if the 3 month T-bill increases 100 basis points (one
percent), then the 6 month, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year, 20 year, and 30 year rates increase by 100 basis points as
Related: Non-parallel shift in the yield curve.

Payout ratio

Generally, the proportion of earnings paid out to the common stockholders as cash dividends.
More specifically, the firm's cash dividend divided by the firm's earnings in the same reporting period.

Performance attribution analysis

The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain
the reasons why those results were achieved. This analysis seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What
were the major sources of added value? (2) Was short-term factor timing statistically significant? (3) Was
market timing statistically significant? And (4), Was security selection statistically significant?

Performance evaluation

The evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining
whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance
measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance
attribution analysis).

Performance measurement

The calculation of the return realized by a money manager over some time interval.

Performance shares

Shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings
per share and similar criteria. A control device used by shareholders to tie management to the self-interest of

Policy asset allocation

A long-term asset allocation method, in which the investor seeks to assess an
appropriate long-term "normal" asset mix that represents an ideal blend of controlled risk and enhanced

Priced out

The market has already incorporated information, such as a low dividend, into the price of a stock.

Pro forma capital structure analysis

A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.

Pro forma financial statements

Financial statements as adjusted to reflect a projected or planned transaction.

Pro forma statement

A financial statement showing the forecast or projected operating results and balance
sheet, as in pro forma income statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows.

Provisional call feature

A feature in a convertible issue that allows the issuer to call the issue during the noncall
period if the price of the stock reaches a certain level.

Put-call parity relationship

The relationship between the price of a put and the price of a call on the same
underlying security with the same expiration date, which prevents arbitrage opportunities. Holding the stock
and buying a put will deliver the exact payoff as buying one call and investing the present value (PV) of the
exercise price. The call value equals C=S+P-PV(k).

Rally (recovery)

An upward movement of prices. Opposite of reaction.

Seasoned new issue

A new issue of stock after the company's securities have previously been issued. A
seasoned new issue of common stock can be made by using a cash offer or a rights offer.







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