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Definition of Breakout

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Breakout

A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its previous high price) or drop
below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing
move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator.



Related Terms:

accepted quality level (AQL)

the maximum limit for the number of defects or errors in a process


Adjusted Cash Flow Provided by Continuing Operations

Cash flow provided by operating
activities adjusted to provide a more recurring, sustainable measure. Adjustments to reported cash
provided by operating activities are made to remove such nonrecurring cash items as: the operating
component of discontinued operations, income taxes on items classified as investing or financing activities, income tax benefits from nonqualified employee stock options, the cash effects of purchases and sales of trading securities for nonfinancial firms, capitalized expenditures, and other nonrecurring cash inflows and outflows.


Adjusted Income from Continuing

Operations Reported income from continuing operations
adjusted to remove nonrecurring items.


Arm's length price

The price at which a willing buyer and a willing unrelated seller would freely agree to
transact.


Ask price

A dealer's price to sell a security; also called the offer price.



Asset-backed security

A security that is collateralized by loans, leases, receivables, or installment contracts
on personal property, not real estate.


Available-for-Sale Security

A debt or equity security not classified as a held-to-maturity security or a trading security. Can be classified as a current or noncurrent investment depending on the intended holding period.


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Bargain-purchase-price option

Gives the lessee the option to purchase the asset at a price below fair market
value when the lease expires.


Basis price

price expressed in terms of yield to maturity or annual rate of return.


batch-level cost

a cost that is caused by a group of things
being made, handled, or processed at a single time


Bid price

This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically
speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask , offer.


Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).


Buy

To purchase an asset; taking a long position.


Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.


Buy-back

Another term for a repo.


Buy in

To cover, offset or close out a short position. Related: evening up, liquidation.


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Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: sell limit order.


Buy on close

To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.



Buy on margin

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.


Buy on opening

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Buy-side analyst

A financial analyst employed by a non-brokerage firm, typically one of the larger money
management firms that purchase securities on their own accounts.


Buydowns

Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly
payments.


Buying the index

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.


Buyout

Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.


Cash Flow Provided or Used from Financing Activities

Cash receipts and payments involving
liability and stockholders' equity items, including obtaining cash from creditors and repaying
the amounts borrowed and obtaining capital from owners and providing them with a return on,
and a return of, their investments.



Cash Flow Provided or Used from Investing Activities

Cash receipts and payments involving
long-term assets, including making and collecting loans and acquiring and disposing of
investments and productive long-lived assets.


Clean price

Bond price excluding accrued interest.


Conditional Buyer

One of two parties to a conditional sale agreement, the other being the conditional seller.


Conditional Seller

One of two parties to a conditional sale agreement, the other being the conditional buyer.


Confidence indicator

A measure of investors' faith in the economy and the securities market. A low or
deteriorating level of confidence is considered by many technical analysts as a bearish sign.


Confidence level

The degree of assurance that a specified failure rate is not exceeded.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI, as it is called, measures the prices of consumer goods and services and is a
measure of the pace of U.S. inflation. The U.S.Department of Labor publishes the CPI very month.


Consumer Price Index (CPI)

An index calculated by tracking the cost of a typical bundle of consumer goods and services over time. It is commonly used to measure inflation.


Conversion parity price

Related:Market conversion price


Convertible price

The contractually specified price per share at which a convertible security can be
converted into shares of common stock.


Convertible security

A security that can be converted into common stock at the option of the security holder,
including convertible bonds and convertible preferred stock.


Debt Security

A security representing a debt relationship with an enterprise, including a government
security, municipal security, corporate bond, convertible debt issue, and commercial
paper.


Delivery price

The price fixed by the Clearing house at which deliveries on futures are in invoiced; also the
price at which the futures contract is settled when deliveries are made.


Derivative security

A financial security, such as an option, or future, whose value is derived in part from the
value and characteristics of another security, the underlying security.


Devaluation A decrease in the spot price of the currency



Dirty price

Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer.


Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.


Drop lock

An arrangement whereby the interest rate on a floating rate note or preferred stock becomes fixed
if it falls to a specified level.


Drop, the

With the dollar roll transaction the difference between the sale price of a mortgage-backed passthrough,
and its re-purchase price on a future date at a predetermined price.


Earnings surprises

Positive or negative differences from the consensus forecast of earnings by institutions
such as First Call or IBES. Negative earnings surprises generally have a greater adverse affect on stock prices
than the reciprocal positive earnings surprise on stock prices.


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Embodied Technical Change

technical change that can be used only when new capital embodying this technical change is produced.


Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)

A federal Act that sets minimum operational and funding standards for employee benefit
plans.


enterprise resource planning (ERP) system

a packaged software program that allows a company to
(1) automate and integrate the majority of its business processes,
(2) share common data and practices across the entire enterprise, and
(3) produce and access information in a realtime environment


Enterprise resource planning system

A computer system used to manage all company
resources in the receipt, completion, and delivery of customer orders.


Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.


Equity Buy-Back

Refers to the investors percentage ownership of a company that can be re-acquired by the company, usually at a pre-determined amount.


Equity Security

An ownership interest in an enterprise, including preferred and common stock.


Escalating Price Option

A nonqualified stock option that uses a sliding scale for
the option price that changes in concert with a peer group index.


Exchangeable Security

security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.


Exercise price

The price at which the underlying future or options contract may be bought or sold.


Exercise price

The price set for buying an asset (call) or selling an asset (put).
The strike price.


Fair market price

Amount at which an asset would change hands between two parties, both having
knowledge of the relevant facts. Also referred to as market price.


Fair price

The equilibrium price for futures contracts. Also called the theoretical futures price, which equals
the spot price continuously compounded at the cost of carry rate for some time interval.


Fair price provision

See:appraisal rights.


Financial analysts

Also called securities analysts and investment analysts, professionals who analyze
financial statements, interview corporate executives, and attend trade shows, in order to write reports
recommending either purchasing, selling, or holding various stocks.


Fixed-dollar security

A nonnegotiable debt security that can be redeemed at some fixed price or according to
some schedule of fixed values, e.g., bank deposits and government savings bonds.


Fixed-income security

A security that pays a specified cash flow over a
specific period. Bonds are typical fixed-income securities.


Fixed price basis

An offering of securities at a fixed price.


Fixed-price tender offer

A one-time offer to purchase a stated number of shares at a stated fixed price,
usually a premium to the current market price.


Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.


Flat price risk

Taking a position either long or short that does not involve spreading.


floating-rate security

security paying dividends or interest that vary with short-term interest rates.


Forward buying

The purchase of items exceeding the quantity levels indicated
by current manufacturing requirements.


Full price

Also called dirty price, the price of a bond including accrued interest. Related: flat price.


fundamental analysts

analysts who attempt to find under- or overvalued securities by analyzing fundamental information, such as earnings, asset values, and business prospects.


Futures price

The price at which the parties to a futures contract agree to transact on the settlement date.


Government sponsored enterprises

Privately owned, publicly chartered entities, such as the Student Loan
Marketing Association, created by Congress to reduce the cost of capital for certain borrowing sectors of the
economy including farmers, homeowners, and students.


Held-to-Maturity Security

A debt security for which the investing entity has both the positive
intent and the ability to hold until maturity.


Hell-or-high-water contract

A contract that obligates a purchaser of a project's output to make cash
payments to the project in all events, even if no product is offered for sale.


High-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a high-coupon bond with a new, lower coupon bond.


High-low-close chart

A financial chart usually used to plot the high, low,
open, and close price of a security over time. Plots are vertical lines whose top
is the high, bottom is the low, open is a short horizontal tick to the left, and
close is a short horizontal tick to the right.


high-low method

a technique used to determine the fixed
and variable portions of a mixed cost; it uses only the highest
and lowest levels of activity within the relevant range


High-Powered Money

See money base.


High price

The highest (intraday) price of a stock over the past 52 weeks, adjusted for any stock splits.


High-Risk Small Business

Firm viewed as being particularly subject to risk from an investors perspective.


High-yield bond

See:junk bond.


Highly leveraged transaction (HLT)

Bank loan to a highly leveraged firm.


Host security

The security to which a warrant is attached.


Hybrid security

A convertible security whose optioned common stock is trading in a middle range, causing
the convertible security to trade with the characteristics of both a fixed-income security and a common stock
instrument.


Income from Continuing Operations

After-tax net income before discontinued operations,
extraordinary items, and the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principle.


Investment analysts

Related: financial analysts


Invoice price

The price that the buyer of a futures contract must pay the seller when a Treasury Bond is delivered.


Law of one price

An economic rule stating that a given security must have the same price regardless of the
means by which one goes about creating that security. This implies that if the payoff of a security can be
synthetically created by a package of other securities, the price of the package and the price of the security
whose payoff it replicates must be equal.


law of one price

Theory that prices of goods in all countries should be equal when translated to a common currency.


Leading economic indicators

Economic series that tend to rise or fall in advance of the rest of the economy.


Leading Indicator

A variable that reaches a turning point (a peak or a trough) before the economy reaches a turning point.


Level-coupon bond

Bond with a stream of coupon payments that are the same throughout the life of the bond.


Level pay

The characteristic of the scheduled principal and interest payments due under a mortgage such that
total monthly payment of P&I is the same while characteristically the principal payment component of the
monthly payment becomes gradually greater while the monthly interest payment becomes less.


Level Premium

A premium that remains unchanged throughout the life of a policy


Level Premium Life Insurance

This is a type of insurance for which the cost is distributed evenly over the premium payment period. The premium remains the same from year to year and is more than actual cost of protection in the earlier years of the policy and less than the actual cost of protection in the later years. The excess paid in the early years builds up a reserve to cover the higher cost in the later years.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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