Financial Terms Cross holdings

# Definition of Cross holdings

## Cross holdings

One corporation holds shares in another firm.

# Related Terms:

## Average (across-day) measures

An estimation of price that uses the average or representative price of a

## Cross-border risk

Refers to the volatility of returns on international investments caused by events associated
with a particular country as opposed to events associated solely with a particular economic or financial agent.

## Cross default

A provision under which default on one debt obligation triggers default on another debt
obligation.

## Cross hedging

The practice of hedging with a futures contract that is different from the underlying being
hedged.

## Cross rates

The exchange rate between two currencies expressed as the ratio of two foreign exchange rates
that are both expressed in terms of a third currency.

## Cross-sectional approach

A statistical methodology applied to a set of firms at a particular point in time.

## Crossover rate

The return at which two alternative projects have the same net present value.

## Accounts Payable Days (A/P Days)

The number of days it would take to pay the ending balance
in accounts payable at the average rate of cost of goods sold per day. Calculated by dividing
accounts payable by cost of goods sold per day, which is cost of goods sold divided by 365.

## Accounts Receivable Days (A/R Days)

The number of days it would take to collect the ending
balance in accounts receivable at the year's average rate of revenue per day. Calculated as
accounts receivable divided by revenue per day (revenue divided by 365).

## Arithmetic average (mean) rate of return

Arithmetic mean return.

## Asset-specific Risk

The amount of total risk that can be eliminated by diversification by
creating a portfolio. Also known as company-specific risk or
unsystematic risk.

## Average

An arithmetic mean of selected stocks intended to represent the behavior of the market or some
component of it. One good example is the widely quoted Dow Jones Industrial average, which adds the
current prices of the 30 DJIA's stocks, and divides the results by a predetermined number, the divisor.

## Average accounting return

The average project earnings after taxes and depreciation divided by the average
book value of the investment during its life.

## Average age of accounts receivable

The weighted-average age of all of the firm's outstanding invoices.

## Average Amortization Period

The average useful life of a company's collective amortizable asset base.

## Average Collection Period

average number of days necessary to receive cash for the sale of
a company's products. It is calculated by dividing the value of the
accounts receivable by the average daily sales for the period.

## Average collection period, or days' receivables

The ratio of accounts receivables to sales, or the total
amount of credit extended per dollar of daily sales (average AR/sales * 365).

## Average-Cost Inventory Method

The inventory cost-flow assumption that assigns the average
cost of beginning inventory and inventory purchases during a period to cost of goods sold and
ending inventory.

## Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.

## Average inventory

The beginning inventory for a period, plus the amount at the end of
the period, divided by two. It is most commonly used in situations in which just
using the period-end inventory yields highly variable results, due to constant and
large changes in the inventory level.

## Average life

Also referred to as the weighted-average life (WAL). The average number of years that each
dollar of unpaid principal due on the mortgage remains outstanding. average life is computed as the weighted average time to the receipt of all future cash flows, using as the weights the dollar amounts of the principal
paydowns.

## Average maturity

The average time to maturity of securities held by a mutual fund. Changes in interest rates
have greater impact on funds with longer average life.

## Average Propensity to Consume

Ratio of consumption to disposable income. See also marginal propensity to consume.

## Average Propensity to Save

Ratio of saving to disposable income. See also marginal propensity to save.

## Average rate of return (ARR)

The ratio of the average cash inflow to the amount invested.

## Average tax rate

Taxes as a fraction of income; total taxes divided by total taxable income.

## average tax rate

Total taxes owed divided by total income.

## Bankruptcy risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to meet its debt obligations. Also referred to as default or insolvency risk.

## Basis risk

The uncertainty about the basis at the time a hedge may be lifted. Hedging substitutes basis risk for
price risk.

## Beta risk

risk of a firm measured from the standpoint of an investor who holds a highly diversified portfolio.

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will be impaired because of adverse economic
conditions, making it difficult for the issuer to meet its operating expenses.

## Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.

## Commercial risk

The risk that a foreign debtor will be unable to pay its debts because of business events,
such as bankruptcy.

## Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk

## Companyspecific Risk

See asset-specific risk

## Completion risk

The risk that a project will not be brought into operation successfully.

## Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.

## Country financial risk

The ability of the national economy to generate enough foreign exchange to meet
payments of interest and principal on its foreign debt.

## Country risk General

Level of political and economic uncertainty in a country affecting the value of loans or
investments in that country.

## Credit risk

The risk that an issuer of debt securities or a borrower may default on his obligations, or that the
payment may not be made on a negotiable instrument. Related: Default risk

## Credit Risk

Financial and moral risk that an obligation will not be paid and a loss will result.

## Currency risk

Related: Exchange rate risk

## Currency risk sharing

An agreement by the parties to a transaction to share the currency risk associated with
the transaction. The arrangement involves a customized hedge contract embedded in the underlying
transaction.

## Day order

An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.

Refers to establishing and liquidating the same position or positions within one day's trading.

## Days in receivables

average collection period.

## Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

## Days' sales outstanding

average collection period.

## Days Statistics

measures the number days' worth of sales in accounts receivable (accounts receivable
days) or days' worth of sales at cost in inventory (inventory days). Sharp increases in these measures
might indicate that the receivables are not collectible and that the inventory is not salable.

## Default risk

Also referred to as credit risk (as gauged by commercial rating companies), the risk that an
issuer of a bond may be unable to make timely principal and interest payments.

## Diversifiable risk

Related: unsystematic risk.

## dollar days (of inventory)

a measurement of the value of inventory for the time that inventory is held

## Dow Jones industrial average

This is the best known U.S.index of stocks. It contains 30 stocks that trade on
the New York Stock Exchange. The Dow, as it is called, is a barometer of how shares of the largest
U.S.companies are performing. There are thousands of investment indexes around the world for stocks,
bonds, currencies and commodities.

## Dow Jones Industrial Average

Index of the investment performance of a portfolio of 30 “blue-chip” stocks.

## Economic risk

In project financing, the risk that the project's output will not be salable at a price that will
cover the project's operating and maintenance costs and its debt service requirements.

## Equilibrium market price of risk

The slope of the capital market line (CML). Since the CML represents the
return offered to compensate for a perceived level of risk, each point on the line is a balanced market
condition, or equilibrium. The slope of the line determines the additional return needed to compensate for a
unit change in risk.

## Event risk

The risk that the ability of an issuer to make interest and principal payments will change because
of rare, discontinuous, and very large, unanticipated changes in the market environment such as (1) a natural
or industrial accident or some regulatory change or (2) a takeover or corporate restructuring.

## Exchange rate risk

Also called currency risk, the risk of an investment's value changing because of currency
exchange rates.

## Exchange risk

The variability of a firm's value that results from unexpected exchange rate changes or the
extent to which the present value of a firm is expected to change as a result of a given currency's appreciation
or depreciation.

## Fallout risk

A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be
originated are set at the same time as the sale terms are set. The risk is that either of the two parties, borrower
or investor, fails to close and the loan "falls out" of the pipeline.

## Financial risk

The risk that the cash flow of an issuer will not be adequate to meet its financial obligations.
Also referred to as the additional risk that a firm's stockholder bears when the firm utilizes debt and equity.

## financial risk

risk to shareholders resulting from the use of debt.

## Firm-specific risk

See:diversifiable risk or unsystematic risk.

## First notice day

The first day, varying by contracts and exchanges, on which notices of intent to deliver
actual financial instruments or physical commodities against futures are authorized.

## Flat price risk

Taking a position either long or short that does not involve spreading.

## Force majeure risk

The risk that there will be an interruption of operations for a prolonged period after a
project finance project has been completed due to fire, flood, storm, or some other factor beyond the control

## Foreign exchange risk

The risk that a long or short position in a foreign currency might have to be closed out
at a loss due to an adverse movement in the currency rates.

## Funding risk

Related: interest rate risk

## Geographic risk

risk that arises when an issuer has policies concentrated within certain geographic areas,
such as the risk of damage from a hurricane or an earthquake.

## Herstatt risk

The risk of loss in foreign exchange trading that one party will deliver foreign exchange but the counterparty financial institution will fail to deliver its end of the contract. It is also referred to as settlement risk.

Firm viewed as being particularly subject to risk from an investors perspective.

## Idiosyncratic Risk

Unsystematic risk or risk that is uncorrelated to the overall market risk. In other words,
the risk that is firm specific and can be diversified through holding a portfolio of stocks.

## Inflation risk

Also called purchasing-power risk, the risk that changes in the real return the investor will
realize after adjusting for inflation will be negative.

## Insolvency risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to satisfy its debts. Also known as bankruptcy risk.

## Interest rate risk

The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a
bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that
spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.

## Interest Rate Risk

Possibility that interest rates will rise during the term of a loan thereby increasing the annual cost of borrowing.

## Inventory Days

The number of days it would take to sell the ending balance in inventory at the
average rate of cost of goods sold per day. Calculated by dividing inventory by cost of goods sold
per day, which is cost of goods sold divided by 365.

## judgmental method (of risk adjustment)

an informal method of adjusting for risk that allows the decision maker
to use logic and reason to decide whether a project provides
an acceptable rate of return

The final day under an exchange's rules during which trading may take place in a particular
futures or options contract. Contracts outstanding at the end of the last trading day must be settled by delivery
of underlying physical commodities or financial instruments, or by agreement for monetary settlement
depending upon futures contract specifications.

## Liquidity risk

The risk that arises from the difficulty of selling an asset. It can be thought of as the difference
between the "true value" of the asset and the likely price, less commissions.

## Market price of risk

A measure of the extra return, or risk premium, that investors demand to bear risk. The
reward-to-risk ratio of the market portfolio.

## Market risk

risk that cannot be diversified away. Related: systematic risk

## Market Risk

The amount of total risk that cannot be eliminated by portfolio
diversification. The risk inherent in the general economy as a
whole. Also known as systemic risk.

## market risk

Economywide (macroeconomic) sources of risk that affect the overall stock market. Also called systematic risk.

## Market Risk

The part of security's risk that cannot be eliminated by diversification. It is measured by the beta coefficient.

risk premium of market portfolio. Difference between market return and return on risk-free Treasury bills.

## Mortgage-pipeline risk

The risk associated with taking applications from prospective mortgage borrowers
who may opt to decline to accept a quoted mortgage rate within a certain grace period.

## Moving average

Used in charts and technical analysis, the average of security or commodity prices
constructed in a period as short as a few days or as Long as several years and showing trends for the latest
interval. As each new variable is included in calculating the average, the last variable of the series is deleted.

## Moving average

parametrically determined prices over some time period.

## Moving average inventory method

An inventory costing methodology that calls for the re-calculation of the average cost of all parts in stock after every purchase.
Therefore, the moving average is the cost of all units subsequent to the latest purchase,
divided by their total cost.

## Moving-averages chart

A financial chart that plots leading and lagging
moving averages for prices or values of an asset.

## Nondiversifiable risk

risk that cannot be eliminated by diversification.

## Nonsystematic risk

Nonmarket or firm-specific risk factors that can be eliminated by diversification. Also
called unique risk or diversifiable risk. Systematic risk refers to risk factors common to the entire economy.

## Notice day

A day on which notices of intent to deliver pertaining to a specified delivery month may be
issued. Related: delivery notice.

## NUMBER OF DAYS SALES IN RECEIVABLES

(also called average collection period). The number of days of net sales that are tied up in credit sales (accounts receivable) that haven’t been collected yet.

## Operating risk

The inherent or fundamental risk of a firm, without regard to financial risk. The risk that is
created by operating leverage. Also called business risk.

risk in firm’s operating income.

## Overnight delivery risk

A risk brought about because differences in time zones between settlement centers
require that payment or delivery on one side of a transaction be made without knowing until the next day
whether the funds have been received in an account on the other side. Particularly apparent where delivery
takes place in Europe for payment in dollars in New York.

## Political risk

Possibility of the expropriation of assets, changes in tax policy, restrictions on the exchange of
foreign currency, or other changes in the business climate of a country.

## Price risk

The risk that the value of a security (or a portfolio) will decline in the future. Or, a type of
mortgage-pipeline risk created in the production segment when loan terms are set for the borrower in advance
of terms being set for secondary market sale. If the general level of rates rises during the production cycle, the
lender may have to sell his originated loans at a discount.

## Product risk

A type of mortgage-pipeline risk that occurs when a lender has an unusual loan in production or
inventory but does not have a sale commitment at a prearranged price.

Related: inflation risk

## Rate risk

In banking, the risk that profits may decline or losses occur because a rise in interest rates forces up
the cost of funding fixed-rate loans or other fixed-rate assets.

## Regulatory pricing risk

risk that arises when regulators restrict the premium rates that insurance companies
can charge.

## Reinvestment risk

The risk that proceeds received in the future will have to be reinvested at a lower potential
interest rate.