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Cost of sales

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Definition of Cost of sales

Cost Of Sales Image 1

Cost of sales

The manufacture or purchase price of goods sold in a period or the cost of providing a service.



Related Terms:

Cost of goods sold

See cost of sales.


Gross profit

The difference between the price at which goods or services are sold and the cost of sales.
Income The revenue generated from the sale of goods or services.


Net sales

Total revenue, less the cost of sales returns, allowances, and discounts.


LIFO Dipping

Reducing LIFO inventory quantities and, as a result, including older and lower
costs in the computation of cost of sales, resulting in an increase in earnings.


Earnings

In general, refers to a company's total sales less cost of sales and operating expenses, including interest and income tax.



Accelerated cost recovery system (ACRS)

Schedule of depreciation rates allowed for tax purposes.


Agency cost view

The argument that specifies that the various agency costs create a complex environment in
which total agency costs are at a minimum with some, but less than 100%, debt financing.


Cost Of Sales Image 2

Agency costs

The incremental costs of having an agent make decisions for a principal.


All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.


Average cost of capital

A firm's required payout to the bondholders and to the stockholders expressed as a
percentage of capital contributed to the firm. Average cost of capital is computed by dividing the total
required cost of capital by the total amount of contributed capital.


Bankruptcy cost view

The argument that expected indirect and direct bankruptcy costs offset the other
benefits from leverage so that the optimal amount of leverage is less than 100% debt finaning.


Carring costs

costs that increase with increases in the level of investment in current assets.


Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Cost of capital

The required return for a capital budgeting project.


Cost Of Sales Image 3

Cost of carry

Related: Net financing cost


Cost of funds

Interest rate associated with borrowing money.



Cost of lease financing

A lease's internal rate of return.


Cost of limited partner capital

The discount rate that equates the after-tax inflows with outflows for capital
raised from limited partners.


Cost-benefit ratio

The net present value of an investment divided by the investment's initial cost. Also called
the profitability index.


Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.


Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.


Domestic International Sales Corporation (DISC)

A U.S. corporation that receives a tax incentive for
export activities.


Equivalent annual cost

The equivalent cost per year of owning an asset over its entire life.


Execution costs

The difference between the execution price of a security and the price that would have
existed in the absence of a trade, which can be further divided into market impact costs and market timing
costs.


Financial distress costs

Legal and administrative costs of liquidation or reorganization. Also includes
implied costs associated with impaired ability to do business (indirect costs).


Fixed cost

A cost that is fixed in total for a given period of time and for given production levels.



Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC)

A special type of corporation created by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 that
is designed to provide a tax incentive for exporting U.S.-produced goods.


Friction costs

costs, both implied and direct, associated with a transaction. Such costs include time, effort,
money, and associated tax effects of gathering information and making a transaction.


Incremental costs and benefits

costs and benefits that would occur if a particular course of action were
taken compared to those that would occur if that course of action were not taken.


Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.


Market impact costs

Also called price impact costs, the result of a bid/ask spread and a dealer's price concession.


Market timing costs

costs that arise from price movement of the stock during the time of the transaction
which is attributed to other activity in the stock.


Net financing cost

Also called the cost of carry or, simply, carry, the difference between the cost of financing
the purchase of an asset and the asset's cash yield. Positive carry means that the yield earned is greater than
the financing cost; negative carry means that the financing cost exceeds the yield earned.


Opportunity cost of capital

Expected return that is foregone by investing in a project rather than in
comparable financial securities.


Opportunity costs

The difference in the performance of an actual investment and a desired investment
adjusted for fixed costs and execution costs. The performance differential is a consequence of not being able
to implement all desired trades. Most valuable alternative that is given up.


Price/sales ratio (PS Ratio)

Determined by dividing current stock price by revenue per share (adjusted for stock splits).
Revenue per share for the P/S ratio is determined by dividing revenue for past 12 months by number of shares
outstanding.


Price impact costs

Related: market impact costs


Replacement cost

cost to replace a firm's assets.


Round-trip transactions costs

costs of completing a transaction, including commissions, market impact
costs, and taxes.


Sales charge

The fee charged by a mutual fund when purchasing shares, usually payable as a commission to
marketing agent, such as a financial advisor, who is thus compensated for his assistance to a purchaser. It
represents the difference, if any, between the share purchase price and the share net asset value.


Sales forecast

A key input to a firm's financial planning process. External sales forecasts are based on
historical experience, statistical analysis, and consideration of various macroeconomic factors.


Sales-type lease

An arrangement whereby a firm leases its own equipment, such as IBM leasing its own
computers, thereby competing with an independent leasing company.


Search costs

costs associated with locating a counterparty to a trade, including explicit costs (such as
advertising) and implicit costs (such as the value of time). Related:information costs.


Shortage cost

costs that fall with increases in the level of investment in current assets.


Sunk costs

costs that have been incurred and cannot be reversed.


Trading costs

costs of buying and selling marketable securities and borrowing. Trading costs include
commissions, slippage, and the bid/ask spread. See: transaction costs.


Transactions costs

The time, effort, and money necessary, including such things as commission fees and the
cost of physically moving the asset from seller to buyer. Related: Round-trip transaction costs, Information
costs, search costs.


True interest cost

For a security such as commercial paper that is sold on a discount basis, the coupon rate
required to provide an identical return assuming a coupon-bearing instrument of like maturity that pays
interest in arrears.


Variable cost

A cost that is directly proportional to the volume of output produced. When production is zero,
the variable cost is equal to zero.


Weighted average cost of capital

Expected return on a portfolio of all the firm's securities. Used as a hurdle
rate for capital investment.


Cost basis

An asset’s purchase price, plus costs associated with the purchase, like installation fees, taxes, etc.


Cost of goods sold

The cost of merchandise that a company sold this year. For manufacturing companies, the cost of raw
materials, components, labor and other things that went into producing an item.


MACRS (Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System)

A depreciation method created by the IRS under the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Companies must use it to depreciate all plant and equipment assets installed after December 31, 1986 (for tax purposes).


NET SALES (revenue)

The amount sold after customers’ returns, sales discounts, and other allowances are taken away from
gross sales. (Companies usually just show the net sales amount on their income statements, omitting returns, allowances, and the like.)


NUMBER OF DAYS SALES IN RECEIVABLES

(also called average collection period). The number of days of net sales that are tied up in credit sales (accounts receivable) that haven’t been collected yet.


RATIO OF NET INCOME TO NET SALES

A ratio that shows how much net income (profit) a company made on each dollar of net sales. Here’s the formula:
(Net income) / (Net sales)


RATIO OF NET SALES TO NET INCOME

A ratio that shows how much a company had to collect in net sales to make a dollar of profit. Figure it this way:
(Net sales) / (Net income)


Absorption costing

A method of costing in which all fixed and variable production costs are charged to products or services using an allocation base.


Activity-based costing

A method of costing that uses cost pools to accumulate the cost of significant business activities and then assigns the costs from the cost pools to products or services based on cost drivers.


Avoidable costs

costs that are identifiable with and able to be influenced by decisions made at the business
unit (e.g. division) level.


Cash cost

The amount of cash expended.


Cost

A resource sacrificed or forgone to achieve a specific objective (Horngren et al.), defined
typically in monetary terms.


Cost behaviour

The idea that fixed costs and variable costs react differently to changes in the volume of
products/services produced.


Cost centre

A division or unit of an organization that is responsible for controlling costs.


Cost control

The process of either reducing costs while maintaining the same level of productivity or maintaining costs while increasing productivity.


Cost driver

The most significant cause of the cost of an activity, a measure of the demand for an activity
by each product/service enabling the cost of activities to be assigned from cost pools to products/services.


Cost object

Anything for which a measurement of cost is required – inputs, processes, outputs or responsibility centres.


Cost of capital

The costs incurred by an organization to fund all its investments, comprising the risk-adjusted
cost of equity and debt weighted by the mix of equity and debt.


Cost of manufacture

The cost of goods manufactured for subsequent sale.


Cost of quality

The difference between the actual costs of production, selling and service and the costs that would be incurred if there were no failures during production or usage of products or services.


Cost-plus pricing

A method of pricing in which a mark-up is added to the total product/service cost.


Cost pool

The costs of (cross-functional) business processes, irrespective of the organizational structure of the business.


Cost–volume–profit analysis (CVP)

A method for understanding the relationship between revenue, cost and sales volume.


Direct costs

costs that are readily traceable to particular products or services.


Fixed costs

costs that do not change with increases or decreases in the volume of goods or services
produced, within the relevant range.


Full cost

The cost of a product/service that includes an allocation of all the (production and
non-production) costs of the business.


Indirect costs

costs that are necessary to produce a product/service but are not readily traceable to particular products or services – see overhead.


Job costing

A method of accounting that accumulates the costs of a product/service that is produced either
customized to meet a customer’s specification or in a batch of identical product/services.


Labour oncost

The non-salary or wage costs that follow from the payment of salaries or wages, e.g. National
Insurance and pension contributions.


Lifecycle costing

An approach to costing that estimates and accumulates the costs of a product/service over
its entire lifecycle, i.e. from inception to abandonment.


Marginal cost

The cost of producing one extra unit.


Opportunity cost

The lost opportunity of not doing something, which may be financial or non-financial, e.g. time.


Period costs

The costs that relate to a period of time.


Prime cost

The total of all direct costs.


Process costing

A method of costing for continuous manufacture in which costs for an accounting compared are compared with production for the same period to determine a cost per unit produced.


Product cost

The cost of goods or services produced.


Relevant cost

The cost that is relevant to a particular decision – future, incremental cash flows.


Sales mix

The mix of product/services offered by the business, each of which may be aimed at different customers, with each product/service having different prices and costs.


Semi-fixed costs

costs that are constant within a defined level of activity but that can increase or decrease when
activity reaches upper and lower levels.


Semi-variable costs

costs that have both fixed and variable components.


Standard costs

A budget cost for materials and labour used for decision-making, usually expressed as a per unit cost that is applied to standard quantities from a bill of materials and to standard times from a
routing.


Sunk costs

costs that have been incurred in the past.


Target costing

A method of costing that is concerned with managing whole-of-life costs of a product/service during the product design phase – the difference between target price (to achieve market share) and the target profit margin.


Unavoidable cost

A cost that cannot be influenced at the business unit level but is controllable at the corporate level.


Variable cost

A cost that increases or decreases in proportion with increases or decreases in the volume of production of goods or services.


Variable costing

A method of costing in which only variable production costs are treated as product costs and in which all fixed (production and non-production) costs are treated as period costs.


Weighted average cost of capital

See cost of capital.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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