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Common-base-year analysis

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Definition of Common-base-year analysis

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Common-base-year analysis

The representing of accounting information over multiple years as percentages
of amounts in an initial year.
common-size analysis The representing of balance sheet items as percentages of assets and of income
statement items as percentages of sales.



Related Terms:

activity analysis

the process of detailing the various repetitive actions that are performed in making a product or
providing a service, classifying them as value-added and
non-value-added, and devising ways of minimizing or eliminating
non-value-added activities


Activity-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that develops budgets based on expected activities and cost drivers – see also activity-based costing.


activity-based budgeting (ABB)

planning approach applying activity drivers to estimate the levels and costs of activities necessary to provide the budgeted quantity and
quality of production


Activity-based costing

A method of costing that uses cost pools to accumulate the cost of significant business activities and then assigns the costs from the cost pools to products or services based on cost drivers.


activity based costing (ABC)

A relatively new method advocated for the
allocation of indirect costs. The key idea is to classify indirect costs,
many of which are fixed in amount for a period of time, into separate
activities and to develop a measure for each activity called a cost driver.
The products or other functions in the business that benefit from the
activity are allocated shares of the total indirect cost for the period based
on their usage as measured by the cost driver.



activity-based costing (ABC)

a process using multiple cost drivers to predict and allocate costs to products and services;
an accounting system collecting financial and operational
data on the basis of the underlying nature and extent
of business activities; an accounting information and
costing system that identifies the various activities performed
in an organization, collects costs on the basis of
the underlying nature and extent of those activities, and
assigns costs to products and services based on consumption
of those activities by the products and services


Activity-based costing (ABC)

A cost allocation system that compiles costs and assigns
them to activities based on relevant activity drivers. The cost of these activities can
then be charged to products or customers to arrive at a much more relevant allocation
of costs than was previously the case.


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activity-based management (ABM)

a discipline that focuses on the activities incurred during the production/performance process as the way to improve the value received
by a customer and the resulting profit achieved by providing
this value


Allocation base A measure of activity or volume such as labour

hours, machine hours or volume of production
used to apportion overheads to products and
services.


Asset-based financing

Methods of financing in which lenders and equity investors look principally to the
cash flow from a particular asset or set of assets for a return on, and the return of, their financing.


Asset-Based Financing

Loans granted usually by a financial institution where the asset being financed constitutes the sole security given to the lender.


attribute-based costing (ABC II)

an extension of activitybased costing using cost-benefit analysis (based on increased customer utility) to choose the product attribute
enhancements that the company wants to integrate into a product


BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.


Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.


Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.


Base Year

The reference year when constructing a price index. By tradition it is given the value 100.


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BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(Stockholders’ equity) / (common stock shares outstanding)


Break-even analysis

An analysis of the level of sales at which a project would make zero profit.



break-even analysis

analysis of the level of sales at which the company breaks even.


Break-Even Analysis

An analytical technique for studying the relationships between fixed cost, variable cost, and profits. A breakeven chart graphically depicts the nature of breakeven analysis. The breakeven point represents the volume of sales at which total costs equal total revenues (that is, profits equal zero).


capital investment analysis

Refers to various techniques and procedures
used to determine or to analyze future returns from an investment
of capital in order to evaluate the capital recovery pattern and the
periodic earnings from the investment. The two basic tools for capital
investment analysis are (1) spreadsheet models (which I strongly prefer)
and (2) mathematical equations for calculating the present value or
internal rate of return of an investment. Mathematical methods suffer
from a lack of information that the decision maker ought to consider. A
spreadsheet model supplies all the needed information and has other
advantages as well.


Cash flow per common share

Cash flow from operations minus preferred stock dividends, divided by the
number of common shares outstanding.


Cluster analysis

A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated
within each cluster and relatively uncorrelated between clusters. Cluster analysis has identified groupings
such as growth, cyclical, stable and energy stocks.


common body of knowledge (CBK)

the minimum set of knowledge needed by a person to function effectively in a particular field


Common market

An agreement between two or more countries that permits the free movement of capital
and labor as well as goods and services.


Common Shares

Are equity instruments that take no security against assets, have no fixed terms of repayment and pay no fixed dividends.


common-size balance sheet

Balance sheet that presents items as a percentage of total assets.


common-size income statement

Income statement that presents items as a percentage of revenues.



Common stock

These are securities that represent equity ownership in a company. common shares let an
investor vote on such matters as the election of directors. They also give the holder a share in a company's
profits via dividend payments or the capital appreciation of the security.


Common stock

Shares of ownership sold to the public.


Common Stock

A financial security that represents an ownership claim on the
assets and earnings of a company. This claim is valid after the
claims of the debt providers and preferred stockholders have been
satisfied.


common stock

Ownership shares in a publicly held corporation.


Common Stock

That part of the capital stock of a corporation that carries voting rights and represents
the last claim on assets and dividends.


Common stock equivalent

A convertible security that is traded like an equity issue because the optioned
common stock is trading high.


Common stock market

The market for trading equities, not including preferred stock.


Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.


Common stock ratios

Ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.


Comparative credit analysis

A method of analysis in which a firm is compared to others that have a desired
target debt rating in order to infer an appropriate financial ratio target.


correlation analysis

an analytical technique that uses statistical
measures of dispersion to reveal the strength of the
relationship between variables


Cost-Benefit Analysis

The calculation and comparison of the costs and benefits of a policy or project.


cost-benefit analysis the analytical process of comparing the

relative costs and benefits that result from a specific course
of action (such as providing information or investing in a
project)


cost driver analysis

the process of investigating, quantifying,
and explaining the relationships of cost drivers and
their related costs


Cost of Common Stock

The rate of return required by the investors in the common stock of
the company. A component of the cost of capital.


Cost–volume–profit analysis (CVP)

A method for understanding the relationship between revenue, cost and sales volume.


Credit analysis

The process of analyzing information on companies and bond issues in order to estimate the
ability of the issuer to live up to its future contractual obligations. Related: default risk


credit analysis

Procedure to determine the likelihood a customer will pay its bills.


Discriminant analysis

A statistical process that links the probability of default to a specified set of financial ratios.


Earnings per share of common stock

How much profit a company made on each share of common stock this year.


End-of-year convention

Treating cash flows as if they occur at the end of a year as opposed to the date
convention. Under the end-of-year convention, the present is time 0, the end of year 1 occurs one year hence,
etc.


Equity-based insurance

Life insurance or annuity product in which the cash value and benefit level fluctuate according to the performance of an equity portfolio.


Factor analysis

A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon, such as the return on a
common stock, in terms of the behavior of a set of predictive factors.


Failure analysis

The examination of failure incidents to identify components
with poor performance profiles.


Financial Trend Analysis

Process of analyzing financial statements of a company for any continuing relationship.


Financial year

The accounting period adopted by a business for the production of its financial statements.
Finished goods Inventory that is ready for sale, either having been purchased as such or the result of a conversion from raw materials through a manufacturing process.


Fiscal year

A 12 month period over which a company reports on the activities that
appear in its annual financial statements. The 12 month period may conform to the
calendar year, or end on some other date that more closely conforms to a company’s
natural business cycle.


Fundamental analysis

Security analysis that seeks to detect misvalued securities by an analysis of the firm's
business prospects. Research analysis often focuses on earnings, dividend prospects, expectations for future
interest rates, and risk evaluation of the firm.


Horizon analysis

An analysis of returns using total return to assess performance over some investment horizon.


Horizontal analysis

The process of dividing each expense item of a given year by the same expense item in
the base year. This allows for the exploration of changes in the relative importance of expense items over time
and the behavior of expense items as sales change.


incremental analysis

a process of evaluating changes that
focuses only on the factors that differ from one course of
action or decision to another


least squares regression analysis

a statistical technique that investigates the association between dependent and independent variables; it determines the line of "best fit" for a set of observations by minimizing the sum of the squares
of the vertical deviations between actual points and the
regression line; it can be used to determine the fixed and
variable portions of a mixed cost


Mean-variance analysis

Evaluation of risky prospects based on the expected value and variance of possible outcomes.


Monetary Base

See money base.


Money base

Composed of currency and coins outside the banking system plus liabilities to the deposit money banks.


Money Base

Cash plus deposits of the commercial banks with the central bank.


Multiple-discriminant analysis (MDA)

Statistical technique for distinguishing between two groups on the
basis of their observed characteristics.


Pareto analysis

a method of ranking the causes of variation
in a process according to the impact on an objective
Pareto inventory analysis an analysis that separates inventory
into three groups based on annual cost-to-volume usage


Pareto analysis

The 80:20 ratio that states that 20% of the variables included in an
analysis are responsible for 80% of the results. For example, 20% of all customers
are responsible for 80% of all customer service activity, or 20% of all inventory
items comprise 80% of the inventory value.


Performance attribution analysis

The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain
the reasons why those results were achieved. This analysis seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What
were the major sources of added value? (2) Was short-term factor timing statistically significant? (3) Was
market timing statistically significant? And (4), Was security selection statistically significant?


Policy Year

Period between two policy anniversaries.


Priority-based budget

A budget that allocates funds in line with strategies.


Pro forma capital structure analysis

A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.


Ratio analysis

A method of analysing financial reports to interpret trends and make comparisons by using ratios – two numbers, with one generally expressed as a percentage of the other.


Ratio analysis

A method of relating numbers from the various financial statements to one another in order to get meaningful information for comparison.


Ratio Analysis

The process of using financial ratios, calculated from key accounts
found in a company's financial statements, to make judgements
concerning the finances and operations of the firm


Regression analysis

A statistical technique that can be used to estimate relationships between variables.


Regression analysis

Statistical analysis techniques that quantify the
relationship between two or more variables. The intent is quantitative
prediction or forecasting, particularly using a small population to forecast the
behavior of a large population.


Restatement of Prior-Year Financial Statements

A recasting of prior-year financial statements to remove the effects of an error or other adjustment and report them on a new basis.


Return on Common Equity Ratio

A measure of the percentage return earned on the value of the
common equity invested in the company. It is calculated by
dividing the net income available for distribution to shareholders
by the book value of the common equity.


Scenario analysis

The use of horizon analysis to project bond total returns under different reinvestment rates
and future market yields.


scenario analysis

Project analysis given a particular combination of assumptions.


Sensitivity analysis

analysis of the effect on a project's profitability due to changes in sales, cost, and so on.


Sensitivity analysis

An approach to understanding how changes in one variable of cost–volume–profit analysis are affected by changes in the other variables.


sensitivity analysis

a process of determining the amount of change that must occur in a variable before a different decision would be made


sensitivity analysis

analysis of the effects of changes in sales, costs, and so on, on project profitability.


simulation analysis

Estimation of the probabilities of different possible outcomes, e.g., from an investment project.


SUM-OF-THE-YEARS’ DIGITS

An accelerated depreciation method that makes the sum of the digits in an asset’s expected
life the denominator for a series of yearly depreciation fractions.
The numerators of these fractions are the asset’s years of life in reverse order.
An increasingly smaller depreciation fraction is applied to the asset’s (cost–salvage) value each year.


Sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation

Method of accelerated depreciation.


Technical analysis

Security analysis that seeks to detect and interpret patterns in past security prices.


Value-based management

A variety of approaches that emphasize increasing shareholder value as the primary goal of every business.


Variance analysis

A method of budgetary control that compares actual performance against plan, investigates the causes of the variance and takes corrective action to ensure that targets are achieved.


variance analysis

the process of categorizing the nature (favorable or unfavorable) of the differences between standard and actual costs and determining the reasons for those differences


Vertical analysis

The process of dividing each expense item in the income statement of a given year by net
sales to identify expense items that rise faster or slower than a change in sales.


VERTICAL ANALYSIS

A financial analysis technique that relates key amounts on the income statement and balance sheet to a 100 percent or base figure for the present and previous year.
It shows the percentage change from last year to this year, making it easier to spot problems that require analysis.


Yearly Renewable Term Insurance

Sometimes, simply called YRT, this is a form of term life insurance that may be renewed annually without evidence of insurability to a stated age.


zero-base budgeting

a comprehensive budgeting process
that systematically considers the priorities and alternatives
for current and proposed activities in relation to organization
objectives; it requires the rejustification of ongoing activities


Zero-based budgeting

A method of budgeting that ignores historical budgetary allocations and identifies the costs that are necessary to implement agreed strategies.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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