Financial Terms
Accrued interest

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Definition of Accrued interest

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Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).

Accrued Interest

The amount of interest accumulated on a debt security between
interest paying dates

Accrued Interest

The amount of interest owing but not paid.

Related Terms:

Accrual bond

A bond on which interest accrues, but is not paid to the investor during the time of accrual.
The amount of accrued interest is added to the remaining principal of the bond and is paid at maturity.

Clean price

Bond price excluding accrued interest.

Dirty price

Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer.

Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.

Flat price (also clean price)

The quoted newspaper price of a bond that does not include accrued interest.
The price paid by purchaser is the full price.

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Flat trades

1) A bond in default trades flat; that is, the price quoted covers both principal and unpaid,
accrued interest.
2) Any security that trades without accrued interest or at a price that includes accrued
interest is said to trade flat.

Full price

Also called dirty price, the price of a bond including accrued interest. Related: flat price.

Accrued expenses payable

Expenses that have to be recorded in order for the financial statements to be accurate. accrued expenses usually do not involve the receipt of an invoice from the company providing the goods or services.

accrued expenses payable

The account that records the short-term, noninterest-
bearing liabilities of a business that accumulate over time, such
as vacation pay owed to employees. This liability is different than
accounts payable, which is the liability account for bills that have been
received by a business from purchases on credit.

Accrued Income

Income that has been earned but not yet received. For instance, if you have a non-registered Guaranteed Investment Certificate (GIC), Mutual Fund or Segregated Equity Fund, growth accrues annually or semi-annually and is taxable annually even though the gain is only paid at maturity of your investment.

Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).

Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.

Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").

Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.

Capitalized interest

interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.

Capitalized Interest

interest incurred during the construction period on monies invested in
assets under construction that is added to the cost of the assets.

Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.

Compound interest

interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal.

Compound Interest

interest paid on principal and on interest earned in previous

compound interest

a method of determining interest in which interest that was earned in prior periods is added to the original investment so that, in each successive period, interest is earned on both principal and interest

compound interest

interest earned on interest.

Compound Interest

interest earned on an investment at periodic intervals and added to principal and previous interest earned. Each time new interest earned is calculated it is on a combined total of principal and previous interest earned. Essentially, interest is paid on top of interest.

Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for

Daily Interest Accumulation

Account in which interest is accrued daily and credited to the account at the end of a specified time.

earnings before interest and income tax (EBIT)

A measure of profit that
equals sales revenue for the period minus cost-of-goods-sold expense
and all operating expenses—but before deducting interest and income
tax expenses. It is a measure of the operating profit of a business before
considering the cost of its debt capital and income tax.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.

Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

The operating profit before deducting interest and tax.

Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA)

The operating profit before deducting interest, tax, depreciation and amortization.

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

An earningsbased measure that, for many, serves as a surrogate for cash flow. Actually consists of working
capital provided by operations before interest and taxes.

Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of

effective annual interest rate

interest rate that is annualized using compound interest.

Effective Interest Rate

The rate of interest actually earned on an investment. It is
calculated as the ratio of the total amount of interest actually
earned for one year divided by the amount of the principal.

Equilibrium rate of interest

The interest rate that clears the market. Also called the market-clearing interest

Fixed Interest Rate

A rate that does not fluctuate with general market conditions.

Floating Interest Rate

A rate that fluctuates with general market condition.

Forward interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.

fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.

Gross interest

interest earned before taxes are deducted.

Guaranteed Interest Annuity (GIA)

interest bearing investment with fixed rate and term.

Guaranteed Interest Certificate (GIC)

interest bearing investment with fixed rate and term.

Insurable Interest

In England in the 1700's it was popular to bet on the date of death of certain prominent public figures. Anyone could buy life insurance on another's life, even without their consent. Unfortunately, some died before it was their time, dispatched prematurely in order that the life insurance proceeds could be collected. In 1774, English Parliament passed a law which restricted the right to be a beneficiary on a life insurance contract to those who would suffer an economic loss when the life insured died. The law also provided that a person has an unlimited insurable interest in his own life. It is still a legal stipulation that an insurance contract is not valid unless insurable interest exists at the time the policy is issued. Life Insurance companies will not, however, issue unlimited amounts of coverage to an individual. The amount of life insurance which will be approved has to approximate the loss caused by the death of the individual and must not result in a windfall for the beneficiary.


The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time and
reflects the rate of exchange of present consumption for future consumption. Also, a share or title in property.


The cost of money, received on investments or paid on borrowings.


The cost of funds loaned to an entity. It can also refer to the equity ownership
of an investor in a business entity.


A charge for the use of money supplied by a lender.


The cost of a loan or the compensation paid for the use of money. For example, you are paid interest for deposits you make into a savings account, and you pay interest for money that you borrow from a low-cost borrowing account.

Interest coverage ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This
ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.

Interest coverage test

A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional long-term debt if the issuer's
interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum.

Interest equalization tax

Tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.

Interest Factor

Numbers found in compound interest and annuity tables. Usually called the FVIF or PVIF.

Interest income

Income that a company receives in the form of interest, usually as the result of keeping money in interest-bearing accounts at financial institutions and the lending of money to other companies.

Interest on interest

interest earned on reinvestment of each interest payment on money invested.
See: compound interest.

Interest-only strip (IO)

A security based solely on the interest payments form a pool of mortgages, Treasury
bonds, or other bonds. Once the principal on the mortgages or bonds has been repaid, interest payments stop
and the value of the IO falls to zero.

Interest Option

One of several investment accounts in which your premiums may be invested within your life insurance policy.

Interest payable

The amount of interest that is owed but has not been paid at the end of a period.

Interest payments

Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount.

Interest Rate

Cost of using money, expressed as a rate per period of time, usually one year.

Interest Rate

Rate charged or paid for the use of money, normally expressed as a percentage

Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).

Interest rate cap

Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made
when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.

Interest rate ceiling

Related: interest rate cap.

Interest Rate Differential

The interest rate on our financial assets minus the interest rate on a foreign country's financial assets.

Interest rate floor

An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls
below the strike rate.

Interest Rate, Nominal

Payment for the use of borrowed funds, measured as a percentage per year of these funds.

Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.

interest rate parity

Theory that forward premium equals interest rate differential.

Interest Rate Parity

Theory that real interest rates are approximately the same across countries except for a risk premium.

Interest rate parity theorem

interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.

Interest Rate, Real

Nominal interest rate less expected inflation.

Interest rate risk

The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a
bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that
spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.

Interest Rate Risk

Possibility that interest rates will rise during the term of a loan thereby increasing the annual cost of borrowing.

Interest rate swap

A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on
some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party
will pay fixed and receive variable.

Interest subsidy

A firm's deduction of the interest payments on its debt from its earnings before it calculates
its tax bill under current tax law.

Interest tax shield

The reduction in income taxes that results from the tax-deductibility of interest payments.

interest tax shield

Tax savings resulting from deductibility of interest payments.

Money Rate of Interest

See interest rate, nominal.

Nominal interest rate

The interest rate unadjusted for inflation.

Nominal Interest Rate

The rate of interest quoted, or stated, to be paid on a security

nominal interest rate

Rate at which money invested grows.

Nominal Interest Rate

The contracted, or stated, interest rate, undeflated for price level changes.

Open interest

The total number of derivative contracts traded that not yet been liquidated either by an
offsetting derivative transaction or by delivery. Related: liquidation

Pooling of interests

An accounting method for reporting acquisitions accomplished through the use of equity.
The combined assets of the merged entity are consolidated using book value, as opposed to the purchase
method, which uses market value. The merging entities' financial results are combined as though the two
entities have always been a single entity.

Pooling of interests

An method for accounting for a business combination. When used, the expenses of the combination are charged against income at once, and the net
income of the acquired company is added to the full-year reported results of the acquiring company.

Profit before interest and taxes (PBIT)


Rate of interest

The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.

Real interest rate

The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms
of constant-purchasing-power dollars. interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate
adjusted for inflation.

Real Interest Rate

The rate of interest paid on an investment adjusted for inflation

real interest rate

Rate at which the purchasing power of an investment increases.

Real Rate of Interest

See interest rate, real.

Short interest

This is the total number of shares of a security that investors have borrowed, then sold in the
hope that the security will fall in value. An investor then buys back the shares and pockets the difference as profit.

Simple interest

interest calculated only on the initial investment. Related:compound interest.

Simple Interest

interest paid only on the principal; calculated by multiplying the
interest rate by the principal

simple interest

a method of determining interest in which interest is earned only on the original investment (or principal) amount

simple interest

interest earned only on the original investment; no interest is earned on interest.

Spot interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: forward interest rates.

Stated annual interest rate

The interest rate expressed as a per annum percentage, by which interest
payment is determined.

Term Structure of Interest Rates

Relationship among interest rates on bonds with different terms to maturity.







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