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Definition of Buy

Buy Image 1

Buy

To purchase an asset; taking a long position.



Related Terms:

Builder buydown loan

A mortgage loan on newly developed property that the builder subsidizes during the
early years of the development. The builder uses cash to buy down the mortgage rate to a lower level than the
prevailing market loan rate for some period of time. The typical buydown is 3% of the interest-rate amount
for the first year, 2% for the second year, and 1% for the third year (also referred to as a 3-2-1 buydown).


Buy-and-hold strategy

A passive investment strategy with no active buying and selling of stocks from the
time the portfolio is created until the end of the investment horizon.


Buy-back

Another term for a repo.


Buy in

To cover, offset or close out a short position. Related: evening up, liquidation.


Buy limit order

A conditional trading order that indicates a security may be purchased only at the designated
price or lower.
Related: Sell limit order.



Buy on close

To buy at the end of the trading session at a price within the closing range.


Buy on margin

A transaction in which an investor borrows to buy additional shares, using the shares
themselves as collateral.


Buy Image 2

Buy on opening

To buy at the beginning of a trading session at a price within the opening range.


Buy/Sell Agreement

This is an agreement entered into by the owners of a business to define the conditions under which the interests of each shareholder will be bought and sold. The agreement sets the value of each shareholders interest and stipulates what happens when one of the owners wishes to dispose of his/her interest during his/her lifetime as well as disposal of interest upon death or disability. Life insurance, critical illness coverage and disability insurance are major considerations to help fund this type of agreement.


Buy-side analyst

A financial analyst employed by a non-brokerage firm, typically one of the larger money
management firms that purchase securities on their own accounts.


Buydowns

Mortgages in which monthly payments consist of principal and interest, with portions of these
payments during the early period of the loan being provided by a third party to reduce the borrower's monthly
payments.


Buying the index

Purchasing the stocks in the S&P 500 in the same proportion as the index to achieve the
same return.


Buyout

Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.


Conditional Buyer

One of two parties to a conditional sale agreement, the other being the conditional seller.


Equity Buy-Back

Refers to the investors percentage ownership of a company that can be re-acquired by the company, usually at a pre-determined amount.


Forward buying

The purchase of items exceeding the quantity levels indicated
by current manufacturing requirements.


Leveraged buyout

The purchase of one business entity by another, largely using borrowed
funds. The borrowings are typically paid off through the future cash flow of
the purchased entity.


Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.



leveraged buyout (LBO)

Acquisition of the firm by a private group using substantial borrowed funds.


make-or-buy decision

a decision that compares the cost of
internally manufacturing a component of a final product
(or providing a service function) with the cost of purchasing
it from outside suppliers (outsourcing) or from another
division of the company at a specified transfer price


Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.


management buyout (MBO)

Acquisition of the firm by its own management in a leveraged buyout.


Protective put buying strategy

A strategy that involves buying a put option on the underlying security that is
held in a portfolio. Related: Hedge option strategies


Swap buy-back

The sale of an interest rate swap by one counterparty to the other, effectively ending the swap.


48-hour rule

The requirement that all pool information, as specified under the PSA Uniform Practices, in a
TBA transaction be communicated by the seller to the buyer before 3 p.m. EST on the business day 48-hours
prior to the agreed upon trade date.


accounts payable

Short-term, non-interest-bearing liabilities of a business
that arise in the course of its activities and operations from purchases on
credit. A business buys many things on credit, whereby the purchase
cost of goods and services are not paid for immediately. This liability
account records the amounts owed for credit purchases that will be paid
in the short run, which generally means about one month.


Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).


Adjusted present value (APV)

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.



Analyst

Employee of a brokerage or fund management house who studies companies and makes buy-and-sell
recommendations on their stocks. Most specialize in a specific industry.


Arbitrage

The simultaneous buying and selling of a security at two different prices in two different markets,
resulting in profits without risk. Perfectly efficient markets present no arbitrage opportunities. Perfectly
efficient markets seldom exist.


Arm's length price

The price at which a willing buyer and a willing unrelated seller would freely agree to
transact.


Ask

This is the quoted ask, or the lowest price an investor will accept to sell a stock. Practically speaking, this
is the quoted offer at which an investor can buy shares of stock; also called the offer price.


Auction markets

Markets in which the prevailing price is determined through the free interaction of
prospective buyers and sellers, as on the floor of the stock exchange.


Back fee

The fee paid on the extension date if the buyer wishes to continue the option.


Balanced mutual fund

This is a fund that buys common stock, preferred stock and bonds. The same as a
balanced fund.


Barrier options

Contracts with trigger points that, when crossed, automatically generate buying or selling of
other options. These are very exotic options.


Basket options

Packages that involve the exchange of more than two currencies against a base currency at
expiration. The basket option buyer purchases the right, but not the obligation, to receive designated
currencies in exchange for a base currency, either at the prevailing spot market rate or at a prearranged rate of
exchange. A basket option is generally used by multinational corporations with multicurrency cash flows
since it is generally cheaper to buy an option on a basket of currencies than to buy individual options on each
of the currencies that make up the basket.


Bid price

This is the quoted bid, or the highest price an investor is willing to pay to buy a security. Practically
speaking, this is the available price at which an investor can sell shares of stock. Related: Ask , offer.


Bidder

A firm or person that wants to buy a firm or security.


Block house

Brokerage firms that help to find potential buyers or sellers of large block trades.


Bond

Bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The U.S. government, local
governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor
buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the
loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.


Bought deal

Security issue where one or two underwriters buy the entire issue.


Breakout

A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its previous high price) or drop
below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing
move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator.


Broker

An agent who handles public orders to buy or sell financial assets.


Brokered market

A market where an intermediary offers search services to buyers and sellers.


Bull spread

A spread strategy in which an investor buys an out-of-the-money put option, financing it by
selling an out-of-the money call option on the same underlying.


Call

An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.


Call

a. An option to buy a certain quantity of a stock or commodity for a
specified price within a specified time. See Put.
b. A demand to submit bonds to the issuer for redemption before the maturity date.
c. A demand for payment of a debt.
d. A demand for payment due on stock bought on margin.


Call Option

A contract that gives the holder the right to buy an asset for a
specified price on or before a given expiration (maturity) date


call option

Right to buy an asset at a specified exercise price on or before the exercise date.


Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


Callable bond

A bond that allows the issuer to buy back the bond at a
predetermined price at specified future dates. The bond contains an embedded
call option; i.e., the holder has sold a call option to the issuer. See Puttable
bond.


Capital market

The market in which investors buy and sell shares of companies, normally associated with a Stock Exchange.


Channel Stuffing

Shipments of product to distributors who are encouraged to overbuy under
the short-term offer of deep discounts.


Cheapest to deliver issue

The acceptable Treasury security with the highest implied repo rate; the rate that a
seller of a futures contract can earn by buying an issue and then delivering it at the settlement date.


Circular Flow

Income payments to factors of production are spent to buy output. The receipts from these sales are used to pay factors of production, creating a circular flow of income.


Clear

A trade is carried out by the seller delivering securities and the buyer delivering funds in proper form.
A trade that does not clear is said to fail.


Commission broker

A broker on the floor of an exchange acts as agent for a particular brokerage house and
who buys and sells stocks for the brokerage house on a commission basis.


Commission house

A firm which buys and sells future contracts for customer accounts. Related: futures
commission merchant, omnibus account.


Commodity

A commodity is food, metal, or another physical substance that investors buy or sell, usually via
futures contracts.


Conditional Sale Agreement

An agreement entered into between a conditional buyer and a conditional seller setting out the terms under which goods change hands.


Conditional Seller

One of two parties to a conditional sale agreement, the other being the conditional buyer.


Contract

A term of reference describing a unit of trading for a financial or commodity future. Also, the actual
bilateral agreement between the buyer and seller of a transaction as defined by an exchange.


Counterparty risk

The risk that the other party to an agreement will default. In an options contract, the risk
to the option buyer that the option writer will not buy or sell the underlying as agreed.
Country economic risk Developments in a national economy that can affect the outcome of an international
financial transaction.


Coupon rate

The nominal interest rate that the issuer promises to pay the
buyer of a bond.


Covered or hedge option strategies

Strategies that involve a position in an option as well as a position in the
underlying stock, designed so that one position will help offset any unfavorable price movement in the other,
including covered call writing and protective put buying. Related: naked strategies


Credit

buying or selling goods or services now with the intention of payment following at some time in
the future (as opposed to buying or selling goods or services for cash).


Currency arbitrage

Taking advantage of divergences in exchange rates in different money markets by
buying a currency in one market and selling it in another market.


Currency option

An option to buy or sell a foreign currency.


Day order

An order to buy or sell stock that automatically expires if it can't be executed on the day it is entered.


Dealer

An entity that stands ready and willing to buy a security for its own account (at its bid price) or sell
from its own account (at its ask price).


Dealer

A person or firm in the financial asset business who buys for his or her own account and then resells to customers, in contrast to a broker, who buys only on behalf of a customer.


Dealer market

A market where traders specializing in particular commodities buy and sell assets for their
own accounts.


Debt swap

A set of transactions (also called a debt-equity swap) in which a firm buys a country's dollar bank
debt at a discount and swaps this debt with the central bank for local currency that it can use to acquire local
equity.


Delivery options

The options available to the seller of an interest rate futures contract, including the quality
option, the timing option, and the wild card option. Delivery options make the buyer uncertain of which
Treasury Bond will be delivered or when it will be delivered.


Delivery versus payment

A transaction in which the buyer's payment for securities is due at the time of
delivery (usually to a bank acting as agent for the buyer) upon receipt of the securities. The payment may be
made by bank wire, check, or direct credit to an account.


Derivative

A financial instrument that is based on some underlying asset.
For example, an option is a derivative instrument based on the right to buy or
sell an underlying instrument.


Detachable warrant

A warrant entitles the holder to buy a given number of shares of stock at a stipulated
price. A detachable warrant is one that may be sold separately from the package it may have originally been
issued with (usually a bond).


Direct quote

For foreign exchange, the number of U.S. dollars needed to buy one unit of a foreign currency.


Direct search market

buyers and sellers seek each other directly and transact directly.


Dirty price

Bond price including accrued interest, i.e., the price paid by the bond buyer.


Discounting of Accounts Receivable

Short-term financing in which accounts receivable are used as collateral to secure a loan. The lender does not buy the accounts receivable but simply uses them as collateral for the loan. Also called pledging of accounts receivable.


Dollar Cost Averaging

A way of smoothing out your investment deposits by investing regularly. Instead of making one large deposit a year into your RRSP, you make smaller regular monthly deposits. If you are buying units in a mutual fund or segregated equity fund, you would end up buying more units in the month that values were low and less units in the month that values were higher. By spreading out your purchases, you don't have to worry about buying at the right time.


dual pricing arrangement

a transfer pricing system that allows
a selling division to record the transfer of goods or
services at one price (e.g., a market or negotiated market
price) and a buying division to record the transfer at another
price (e.g., a cost-based amount)


Due bill

An instrument evidencing the obligation of a seller to deliver securities sold to the buyer.
Occasionally used in the bill market.


economic components model

Abrams’ model for calculating DLOM based on the interaction of discounts from four economic components.
This model consists of four components: the measure of the economic impact of the delay-to-sale, monopsony power to buyers, and incremental transactions costs to both buyers and sellers.


Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)

A company contributes to a trust fund that buys stock on behalf of
employees.


Equity options

Securities that give the holder the right to buy or sell a specified number of shares of stock, at
a specified price for a certain (limited) time period. Typically one option equals 100 shares of stock.


equivalent annual cost

The cost per period with the same present value as the cost of buying and operating a machine.


Evening up

buying or selling to offset an existing market position.


Ex-dividend

This literally means "without dividend." The buyer of shares when they are quoted ex-dividend
is not entitled to receive a declared dividend.


Ex-dividend date

The first day of trading when the seller, rather than the buyer, of a stock will be entitled to
the most recently announced dividend payment. This date set by the NYSE (and generally followed on other
US exchanges) is currently two business days before the record date. A stock that has gone ex-dividend is
marked with an x in newspaper listings on that date.


Execution

The process of completing an order to buy or sell securities. Once a trade is executed, it is reported
by a Confirmation Report; settlement (payment and transfer of ownership) occurs in the U.S. between 1
(mutual funds) and 5 (stocks) days after an order is executed. Settlement times for exchange listed stocks are
in the process of being reduced to three days in the U. S.


Exercise

To implement the right of the holder of an option to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of
a put) the underlying security.


Exercise price

The price set for buying an asset (call) or selling an asset (put).
The strike price.


Exercising the option

The act buying or selling the underlying asset via the option contract.


Expenses

The costs incurred in buying, making or producing goods and services.


Extension swap

Extending maturity through a swap, e.g. selling a 2-year note and buying one with a slightly
longer current maturity.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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