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Definition of Tranche

Tranche Image 1


One of several related securities offered at the same time. tranches from the same offering usually
have different risk, reward, and/or maturity characteristics.

Related Terms:

Bull-bear bond

Bond whose principal repayment is linked to the price of another security. The bonds are
issued in two tranches: in the first tranche repayment increases with the price of the other security, and in the
second tranche repayment decreases with the price of the other security.

Collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO)

A security backed by a pool of pass-throughs , structured so that
there are several classes of bondholders with varying maturities, called tranches. The principal payments from
the underlying pool of pass-through securities are used to retire the bonds on a priority basis as specified in
the prospectus.
Related: mortgage pass-through security

Dual syndicate equity offering

An international equity placement where the offering is split into two
tranches - domestic and foreign - and each tranche is handled by a separate lead manager.

Stated maturity

For the CMO tranche, the date the last payment would occur at zero CPR.

Accrual bond

A bond on which interest accrues, but is not paid to the investor during the time of accrual.
The amount of accrued interest is added to the remaining principal of the bond and is paid at maturity.

Accumulated Benefit Obligation (ABO)

An approximate measure of the liability of a plan in the event of a
termination at the date the calculation is performed. Related: projected benefit obligation.

Alternative mortgage instruments

Variations of mortgage instruments such as adjustable-rate and variablerate
mortgages, graduated-payment mortgages, reverse-annuity mortgages, and several seldom-used

Tranche Image 1


An investor who believes a stock or the overall market will decline. A bear market is a prolonged period
of falling stock prices, usually by 20% or more. Related: bull.

Bear market

Any market in which prices are in a declining trend.

bear market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally

Bear Market

A prolonged period of falling stock market prices.

Bear raid

A situation in which large traders sell positions with the intention of driving prices down.

Bearer bond

bonds that are not registered on the books of the issuer. Such bonds are held in physical form by
the owner, who receives interest payments by physically detaching coupons from the bond certificate and
delivering them to the paying agent.


bonds are debt and are issued for a period of more than one year. The U.S. government, local
governments, water districts, companies and many other types of institutions sell bonds. When an investor
buys bonds, he or she is lending money. The seller of the bond agrees to repay the principal amount of the
loan at a specified time. Interest-bearing bonds pay interest periodically.


A long-term, interest-bearing promissory note that companies may use to borrow money for periods of time such as five, ten, or twenty years.


A long-term debt instrument in which the issuer (borrower) is
obligated to pay the investor (lender) a specified amount of
money, usually at specific intervals, and to repay the principal
amount of the loan at maturity. The periodic payments are based
on the rate of interest agreed upon at the time the instrument is

Tranche Image 2


Security that obligates the issuer to make specified payments
to the bondholder.


A financial asset taking the form of a promise by a borrower to repay a specified amount (the bond's face value) on a maturity date and to make fixed periodic interest payments.


Usually a fixed interest security under which the issuer contracts to pay the lender a fixed principal amount at a stated date in the future, and a series of interest payments, either semi-annually or annually. Interest payments may vary through the life of bond.


A debt security issued by a government or company. You receive regular interest payments at specified rates while you hold the bond and you receive the face value when it matures. Short-term bonds mature in less than five years; medium-term bonds mature in six to ten years; and long-term bonds mature in eleven years or greater.


Fixed interest security issued by a corporation or government, having a specific maturity date.

Bond agreement

A contract for privately placed debt.

Bond covenant

A contractual provision in a bond indenture. A positive covenant requires certain actions, and
a negative covenant limits certain actions.

Bond-equivalent basis

The method used for computing the bond-equivalent yield.

Bond equivalent yield

bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method. Differs from annual
effective yield.

Bond-equivalent yield

The annualized yield to maturity computed by doubling the semiannual yield.

Bond Equivalent Yield

bond yield calculated on an annual percentage rate method

Tranche Image 3

Bond indenture

The contract that sets forth the promises of a corporate bond issuer and the rights of

Bond indexing

Designing a portfolio so that its performance will match the performance of some bond index.

Bond points

A conventional unit of measure for bond prices set at $10 and equivalent to 1% of the $100 face
value of the bond. A price of 80 means that the bond is selling at 80% of its face, or par value.

Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.


A system that monitors and evaluates the performance of a fixed-income portfolio , as well as the
individual securities held in the portfolio. bondPAR decomposes the return into those elements beyond the
manager's control--such as the interest rate environment and client-imposed duration policy constraints--and
those that the management process contributes to, such as interest rate management, sector/quality allocations,
and individual bond selection.

Bonds payable

Amounts owed by the company that have been formalized by a legal document called a bond.

Brady bonds

bonds issued by emerging countries under a debt reduction plan.


An investor who thinks the market will rise. Related: bear.

Bull CD, Bear CD

A bull CD pays its holder a specified percentage of the increase in return on a specified
market index while guaranteeing a minimum rate of return. A bear CD pays the holder a fraction of any fall in
a given market index.

Bull market

Any market in which prices are in an upward trend.

bull market

A market in which stock or bond prices are generally rising.

Bull Market

A prolonged period of rising stock market prices.

Bull spread

A spread strategy in which an investor buys an out-of-the-money put option, financing it by
selling an out-of-the money call option on the same underlying.

Bulldog bond

Foreign bond issue made in London.

Bulldog market

The foreign market in the United Kingdom.

Bullet contract

A guaranteed investment contract purchased with a single (one-shot) premium. Related:
Window contract.

Bullet loan

A bank term loan that calls for no amortization.

Bullet strategy

A strategy in which a portfolio is constructed so that the maturities of its securities are highly
concentrated at one point on the yield curve.

Bullish, bearish

Words used to describe investor attitudes. bullish refers to an optimistic outlook while
bearish means a pessimistic outlook.

Callable bond

A bond that allows the issuer to buy back the bond at a
predetermined price at specified future dates. The bond contains an embedded
call option; i.e., the holder has sold a call option to the issuer. See Puttable

callable bond

bond that may be repurchased by the issuer before maturity at specified call price.

Canada Savings Bonds

A bond issued each year by the federal government. These bonds can be cashed in at any time for their full face value.

Closed-end mortgage

mortgage against which no additional debt may be issued.

Collateral trust bonds

A bond in which the issuer (often a holding company) grants investors a lien on
stocks, notes, bonds, or other financial asset as security. Compare mortgage bond.

Commercial Mortgage

A loan made on real estate collateral, other than a residential property, in which a mortgage is given to secure payment of principal and interest.

Completion bonding

Insurance that a construction contract will be successfully completed.

Conflict between bondholders and stockholders

These two groups may have interests in a corporation that
conflict. Sources of conflict include dividends, distortion of investment, and underinvestment. Protective
covenants work to resolve these conflicts.

Conventional mortgage

A loan based on the credit of the borrower and on the collateral for the mortgage.

convertible bond

bond that the holder may exchange for a specified number of shares.

Convertible bonds

bonds that can be converted into common stock at the option of the holder.

Convertible eurobond

A eurobond that can be converted into another asset, often through exercise of
attached warrants.

Corporate bonds

Debt obligations issued by corporations.

Coupon Bond

Any bond with a coupon. Contrast with discount bond.

Cushion bonds

High-coupon bonds that sell at only at a moderate premium because they are callable at a
price below that at which a comparable non-callable bond would sell. Cushion bonds offer considerable
downside protection in a falling market.

Debenture bond

An unsecured bond whose holder has the claim of a general creditor on all assets of the
issuer not pledged specifically to secure other debt. Compare subordinated debenture bond, and collateral
trust bonds.

Deep-discount bond

A bond issued with a very low coupon or no coupon and selling at a price far below par
value. When the bond has no coupon, it's called a zero coupon bond.

Discount bond

Debt sold for less than its principal value. If a discount bond pays no interest, it is called a
zero coupon bond.

Discount Bond

A bond with no coupons, priced below its face value; the return on this bond comes from the difference between its face value and its current price.

Dollar bonds

Municipal revenue bonds for which quotes are given in dollar prices. Not to be confused with
"U.S. Dollar" bonds, a common term of reference in the Eurobond market.

Dollar price of a bond

Percentage of face value at which a bond is quoted.

Equivalent bond yield

Annual yield on a short-term, non-interest bearing security calculated so as to be
comparable to yields quoted on coupon securities.


A bond that is (1) underwritten by an international syndicate, (2) offered at issuance
simultaneously to investors in a number of countries, and (3) issued outside the jurisdiction of any single


A debt security issued in a market other than the home market of
the company issuing the security


bond that is marketed internationally.

Eurodollar bonds

Eurobonds denominated in U.S.dollars.

Euroyen bonds

Eurobonds denominated in Japanese yen.

Extendable bond

bond whose maturity can be extended at the option of the lender or issuer.

Fixed-dollar obligations

Conventional bonds for which the coupon rate is set as a fixed percentage of the par value.

Flower bond

Government bonds that are acceptable at par in payment of federal estate taxes when owned by
the decedent at the time of death.

Foreign bond

A bond issued on the domestic capital market of anther company.

Foreign bond market

That portion of the domestic bond market that represents issues floated by foreign
companies to governments.

Freddie Mac (Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation)

A Congressionally chartered corporation that
purchases residential mortgages in the secondary market from S&Ls, banks, and mortgage bankers and
securitizes these mortgages for sale into the capital markets.

Full coupon bond

A bond with a coupon equal to the going market rate, thereby, the bond is selling at par.

Full faith-and-credit obligations

The security pledges for larger municipal bond issuers, such as states and
large cities which have diverse funding sources.

GEMs (growing-equity mortgages)

mortgages in which annual increases in monthly payments are used to
reduce outstanding principal and to shorten the term of the loan.

General obligation bonds

Municipal securities secured by the issuer's pledge of its full faith, credit, and
taxing power.

Global bonds

bonds that are designed so as to qualify for immediate trading in any domestic capital market
and in the Euromarket.

GMCs (guaranteed mortgage certificates)

First issued by Freddie Mac in 1975, GMCs, like PCs, represent
undivided interest in specified conventional whole loans and participations previously purchased by Freddie Mac.

Government bond

See: Government securities.

Government National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

A wholly owned U.S. government corporation
within the Department of Housing & Urban Development. Ginnie Mae guarantees the timely payment of
principal and interest on securities issued by approved servicers that are collateralized by FHA-issued, VAguaranteed,
or Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)-guaranteed mortgages.

Graduated-payment mortgages (GPMs)

A type of stepped-payment loan in which the borrower's payments
are initially lower than those on a comparable level-rate mortgage. The payments are gradually increased over
a predetermined period (usually 3,5, or 7 years) and then are fixed at a level-pay schedule which will be
higher than the level-pay amortization of a level-pay mortgage originated at the same time. The difference
between what the borrower actually pays and the amount required to fully amortize the mortgage is added to
the unpaid principal balance.

High-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a high-coupon bond with a new, lower coupon bond.

High-yield bond

See:junk bond.

Income bond

A bond on which the payment of interest is contingent on sufficient earnings. These bonds are
commonly used during the reorganization of a failed or failing business.

Indexed bond

bond whose payments are linked to an index, e.g. the consumer price index.

Industrial revenue bond (IRB)

bond issued by local government agencies on behalf of corporations.

Insured bond

A municipal bond backed both by the credit of the municipal issuer and by commercial
insurance policies.

Insured Mortgage

An insured mortgage protects only the mortgage lender in case you do not make your mortgage payments. This coverage is provided by CMHC [Canada mortgage and Housing Corporation] and is required if a person has a high-ratio mortgage. [A mortgage is high-ratio if the amount borrowed is more than 75% of the purchase price or appraised value, whichever is less.]

International bonds

A collective term that refers to global bonds, Eurobonds, and foreign bonds.

Investment grade bonds

A bond that is assigned a rating in the top four categories by commercial credit
rating companies. For example, S&P classifies investment grade bonds as BBB or higher, and Moodys'
classifies investment grade bonds as Ba or higher. Related: High-yield bond.

Junk bond

A bond with a speculative credit rating of BB (S&P) or Ba (Moody's) or lower is a junk or high
yield bond. Such bonds offer investors higher yields than bonds of financially sound companies. Two
agencies, Standard & Poors and Moody's investor Services, provide the rating systems for companies' credit.

junk bond

bond with a rating below Baa or BBB.

Level-coupon bond

bond with a stream of coupon payments that are the same throughout the life of the bond.

Limited-tax general obligation bond

A general obligation bond that is limited as to revenue sources.

Long bonds

bonds with a long current maturity. The "long bond" is the 30-year U.S. government bond.







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