Financial Terms Time value of money

# Definition of Time value of money

## Time value of money

The idea that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future, because the dollar
received today can earn interest up until the time the future dollar is received.

# Related Terms:

## Claim dilution

A reduction in the likelihood one or more of the firm's claimants will be fully repaid,
including time value of money considerations.

## Compounding

The process of accumulating the time value of money forward in time. For example, interest
earned in one period earns additional interest during each subsequent time period.

## Continuous compounding

The process of accumulating the time value of money forward in time on a
continuous, or instantaneous, basis. Interest is earned continuously, and at each instant, the interest that
accrues immediately begins earning interest on itself.

## Discrete compounding

Compounding the time value of money for discrete time intervals.

## Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding.

## Effective rate

A measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of compounding.

## Payback

The length of time it takes to recover the initial cost of a project, without regard to the time value of money.

## Account Value

The sum of all the interest options in your policy, including interest.

## Accumulated Value

An amount of money invested plus the interest earned on that money.

The net present value analysis of an asset if financed solely by equity
(present value of un-levered cash flows), plus the present value of any financing decisions (levered cash
flows). In other words, the various tax shields provided by the deductibility of interest and the benefits of
other investment tax credits are calculated separately. This analysis is often used for highly leveraged
transactions such as a leverage buy-out.

## approximated net realizable value at split-off allocation

a method of allocating joint cost to joint products using a
simulated net realizable value at the split-off point; approximated
value is computed as final sales price minus
incremental separate costs

## At-the-money

An option is at-the-money if the strike price of the option is equal to the market price of the
underlying security. For example, if xyz stock is trading at 54, then the xyz 54 option is at-the-money.

## Benefit Value

The amount of cash payable on a benefit.

## Bond value

With respect to convertible bonds, the value the security would have if it were not convertible
apart from the conversion option.

## Book value

A company's book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities, such as debt. A
company's book value might be more or less than its market value.

## BOOK VALUE

An asset’s cost basis minus accumulated depreciation.

## Book Value

The value of an asset as carried on the balance sheet of a
company. In reference to the value of a company, it is the net worth
(equity) of the company.

## Book value

An asset’s original cost, less any depreciation that has been subsequently incurred.

## book value

Net worth of the firm’s assets or liabilities according
to the balance sheet.

## book value and book value per share

Generally speaking, these terms
refer to the balance sheet value of an asset (or less often of a liability) or
the balance sheet value of owners’ equity per share. Either term emphasizes
that the amount recorded in the accounts or on the books of a business
is the value being used. The total of the amounts reported for
owners’ equity in its balance sheet is divided by the number of stock
shares of a corporation to determine the book value per share of its capital
stock.

## BOOK VALUE OF COMMON STOCK

The theoretical amount per share that each stockholder would receive if a company’s assets were sold on the balance sheet’s date. Book value equals:
(Stockholders’ equity) / (Common stock shares outstanding)

## Book value per share

The ratio of stockholder equity to the average number of common shares. Book value
per share should not be thought of as an indicator of economic worth, since it reflects accounting valuation
(and not necessarily market valuation).

## Book Value per Share

The book value of a company divided by the number of shares
outstanding

## Break-even time

an activity that is necessary for the operation of the business but for which a customer would not want to pay

## Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.

## CAPITAL IN EXCESS OF PAR VALUE

What a company collected when it sold stock for more than the par value per share.

Book value.

## Cash flow time-line

Line depicting the operating activities and cash flows for a firm over a particular period.

## Cash-surrender value

An amount the insurance company will pay if the policyholder ends a whole life
insurance policy.

## Cash Surrender Value

This is the amount available to the owner of a life insurance policy upon voluntary termination of the policy before it becomes payable by the death of the life insured. This does not apply to term insurance but only to those policies which have reduced paid up values and cash surrender values. A cash surrender in lieu of death benefit usually has tax implications.

## Cash Surrender Value

Benefit that entitles a policy owner to an amount of money upon cancellation of a policy.

A method of investment appraisal that calculates the ratio of the net present value of an
investment to the initial capital investment.

## Conversion value

Also called parity value, the value of a convertible security if it is converted immediately.

## cycle time

the time between the placement of an order to
the time the goods arrive for usage or are produced by
the company; it is equal to value-added time plus nonvalue-

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.

a measure of the extent to which income exceeds the dollar cost of capital; calculated
as income minus (invested capital times the cost of capital percentage)

Term used by the consulting firm Stern Stewart for profit remaining after deduction of the cost
of the capital employed.

## employee time sheet

a source document that indicates, for each employee, what jobs were worked on during the day and for what amount of time

## Exercise value

The amount of advantage over a current market transaction provided by an in-the-money
option.

## Exit value

The value that an asset is expected to have at the time it is sold at a predetermined
point in the future.

## Expected value

The weighted average of a probability distribution.

## Expected Value

The value of the possible outcomes of a variable weighted by the
probabilities of each outcome

## Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

## Extraordinary positive value

A positive net present value.

See: Par value.

## Face Value

The nominal value of a security. Also called the par value.

## Face value

The maturity value of a security. Also known as par value,
principal value, or redemption value.

## face value

Payment at the maturity of the bond. Also called par value or maturity value.

## Face Value

The payoff value of a bond upon maturity. Also called par value. See principal.

## Face Value

The nominal value which appears on the face of a document recording an entitlement, generally an amount of money that has to be repaid on the maturity of a debt instrument.

## Fair market value

The price that an asset or service will fetch on the open market.

## Fair Market Value

The highest price available, expressed in terms of cash, in an open and unrestricted market between informed, prudent parties acting at arm's length and under no compulsion to transact.

## Fair Value

The amount at which an asset could be purchased or sold or a liability incurred or
settled in a current transaction between willing and informed parties. When a quoted market price
is available, fair value is the product of the number of units in question times that market price.
That product also is referred to as the item's market value. For traded securities, the terms fair
value and market value are synonymous. When no quoted market price is available for the item
in question, fair value must be estimated.

## Fiat Money

Fiat money is paper currency made legal tender by law or fiat. It is not backed by gold or silver and is not necessarily redeemable in coin. This practice has had widespread use for about the last 70 years. If governments produce too much of it, there is a loss of confidence. Even so, governments print it routinely when they need it. The value of fiat money is dependent upon the performance of the economy of the country which issued it. Canada's currency falls into this category.

## Firm's net value of debt

Total firm value minus total firm debt.

## Future value

The amount of cash at a specified date in the future that is equivalent in value to a specified
sum today.

## Future Value

The amount a given payment, or series of payments, will be worth
at the end of a specified time period, if invested at a given rate

## future value

the amount to which one or more sums of
money invested at a specified interest rate will grow over
a specified number of time periods

## Future value

The value that a sum of money (the present value) earning
compound interest will have in the future.

## future value

Amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest.

## Future Value

The amount to which a payment or series of payments will grow by a given future date when compounded by a given interest rate. FVIF future value interest factor.

See money base.

## Hot money

money that moves across country borders in response to interest rate differences and that moves
away when the interest rate differential disappears.

## idle time

the amount of time spent in storing inventory or
waiting at a production operation for processing

## In-the-money

A put option that has a strike price higher than the underlying futures price, or a call option
with a strike price lower than the underlying futures price. For example, if the March COMEX silver futures
contract is trading at \$6 an ounce, a March call with a strike price of \$5.50 would be considered in-the-money
by \$0.50 an ounce.
Related: put.

## inspection time

the time taken to perform quality control activities

## Intrinsic value of a firm

The present value of a firm's expected future net cash flows discounted by the
required rate of return.

## Intrinsic value of an option

The amount by which an option is in-the-money. An option which is not in-themoney
has no intrinsic value. Related: in-the-money.

## Investment value

Related:straight value.

## Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.

## just-in-time (JIT)

a philosophy about when to do something;
the when is “as needed” and the something is a production,

## Just-in-time (JIT)

A cluster of manufacturing, design, and delivery practices designed to
continually reduce all types of waste, thereby improving production efficiency.

## Just-in-time manufacturing

The term for several manufacturing innovations that
result in a “pull” method of production, in which each manufacturing workstation
creates just enough product for the immediate needs of the next workstation in the
production process.

## just-in-time manufacturing system

a production system that attempts to acquire components and produce inventory only as needed, to minimize product defects, and to
reduce lead/setup times for acquisition and production

## just-in-time training

a system that maps the skill sets employees
need and delivers the training they need just as they need it

see cycle time

## Liquidation value

Net amount that could be realized by selling the assets of a firm after paying the debt.

## Liquidation Value

The net proceeds (after taxes and expenses) of selling the assets
of a company at fair market prices

## liquidation value

Net proceeds that would be realized by selling the firm’s assets and paying off its creditors.

## Loan value

The amount a policyholder may borrow against a whole life insurance policy at the interest rate
specified in the policy.

## Market timer

A money manager who assumes he or she can forecast when the stock market will go up and down.

## Market value

1) The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
2) The value investors believe a firm is worth; calculated by multiplying the number of shares outstanding by the
current market price of a firm's shares.

## Market value

The price at which a product or service could be sold on the open market.

## Market Value

A quoted market price per unit times the number of units being valued. Synonymous
with fair value for financial instruments when a quoted market price is available.

Market value of equity minus book value.

## market-value balance sheet

Financial statement that uses the market value of all assets and liabilities.

## Market value ratios

Ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.

## Market value-weighted index

An index of a group of securities computed by calculating a weighted average
of the returns on each security in the index, with the weights proportional to outstanding market value.

## Maturity value

Related: par value.

## Money

Any item that serves as a medium of exchange, a store of value, and a unit of account. See medium of exchange.

## Money base

Composed of currency and coins outside the banking system plus liabilities to the deposit money banks.

## Money Base

Cash plus deposits of the commercial banks with the central bank.

## Money center banks

Banks that raise most of their funds from the domestic and international money markets, relying less on depositors for funds.

## Money Laundering

This is the process by which "dirty money" generated by criminal activities is converted through legitimate businesses into assets that cannot be easily traced back to their illegal origins.

## Money management

Related: Investment management.

## Money manager

Related: Investment manager.

## Money market

money markets are for borrowing and lending money for three years or less. The securities in
a money market can be U.S.government bonds, treasury bills and commercial paper from banks and
companies.

## Money Market

A market that specializes in trading short-term, low-risk, very liquid
debt securities