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Definition of Stockout

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Running out of inventory.


the condition of not having inventory available
upon need or request


The absence of any form of inventory when needed.

Related Terms:

Appropriation request

formal request for funds for capital investment project.

Asymmetric information

Information that is known to some people but not to other people.

BARRA's performance analysis (PERFAN)

A method developed by BARRA, a consulting firm in
Berkeley, Calif. It is commonly used by institutional investors applying performance attribution analysis to
evaluate their money managers' performances.

Blanket inventory lien

A secured loan that gives the lender a lien against all the borrower's inventories.

Blue-chip company

Large and creditworthy company.

Stockout Image 1

Borrower fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, the risk that prospective borrowers of loans committed to be
closed will elect to withdraw from the contract.


A rise in a security's price above a resistance level (commonly its previous high price) or drop
below a level of support (commonly the former lowest price.) A breakout is taken to signify a continuing
move in the same direction. Can be used by technical analysts as a buy or sell indicator.


Purchase of a controlling interest (or percent of shares) of a company's stock. A leveraged buy-out is
done with borrowed money.


Refers to a situation where a firm runs out of cash and cannot readily sell marketable securities.

Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.

Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk

Conditional sales contracts

Similar to equipment trust certificates except that the lender is either the
equipment manufacturer or a bank or finance company to whom the manufacturer has sold the conditional
sales contract.

Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


The periodic interest payment made to the bondholders during the life of the bond.

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Coupon equivalent yield

True interest cost expressed on the basis of a 365-day year.

Coupon payments

A bond's interest payments.

Coupon rate

In bonds, notes or other fixed income securities, the stated percentage rate of interest, usually
paid twice a year.

Current coupon

A bond selling at or close to par, that is, a bond with a coupon close to the yields currently
offered on new bonds of a similar maturity and credit risk.

Current-coupon issues

Related: Benchmark issues

Customary payout ratios

A range of payout ratios that is typical based on an analysis of comparable firms.

Days' sales in inventory ratio

The average number of days' worth of sales that is held in inventory.

Days' sales outstanding

Average collection period.

Depository Trust Company (DTC)

DTC is a user-owned securities depository which accepts deposits of
eligible securities for custody, executes book-entry deliveries and records book-entry pledges of securities in
its custody, and provides for withdrawals of securities from its custody.

Dividend payout ratio

Percentage of earnings paid out as dividends.

Down-and-out option

Barrier option that expires if asset price hits a barrier.

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Dupont system of financial control

Highlights the fact that return on assets (ROA) can be expressed in terms
of the profit margin and asset turnover.

Expected value of perfect information

The expected value if the future uncertain outcomes could be known
minus the expected value with no additional information.

Fallout risk

A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be
originated are set at the same time as the sale terms are set. The risk is that either of the two parties, borrower
or investor, fails to close and the loan "falls out" of the pipeline.

Feasible target payout ratios

Payout ratios that are consistent with the availability of excess funds to make
cash dividend payments.

First-In-First-Out (FIFO)

A method of valuing the cost of goods sold that uses the cost of the oldest item in
inventory first.

Flat benefit formula

Method used to determine a participant's benefits in a defined benefit plan by
multiplying months of service by a flat monthly benefit.

Formula basis

A method of selling a new issue of common stock in which the SEC declares the registration
statement effective on the basis of a price formula rather than on a specific range.

Full coupon bond

A bond with a coupon equal to the going market rate, thereby, the bond is selling at par.

Full-payout lease

See: financial lease.

High-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a high-coupon bond with a new, lower coupon bond.

Holding company

A corporation that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and
operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.

Information asymmetry

A situation involving information that is known to some, but not all, participants.

Information Coefficient (IC)

The correlation between predicted and actual stock returns, sometimes used to
measure the value of a financial analyst. An IC of 1.0 indicates a perfect linear relationship between predicted
and actual returns, while an IC of 0.0 indicates no linear relationship.

Information costs

Transaction costs that include the assessment of the investment merits of a financial asset.
Related: search costs.

Information services

Organizations that furnish investment and other types of information, such as
information that helps a firm monitor its cash position.

Information-content effect

The rise in the stock price following the dividend signal.

Informational efficiency

The speed and accuracy with which prices reflect new information.

Informationless trades

Trades that are the result of either a reallocation of wealth or an implementation of an
investment strategy that only utilizes existing information.

Information-motivated trades

Trades in which an investor believes he or she possesses pertinent
information not currently reflected in the stock's price.

Input-output tables

Tables that indicate how much each industry requires of the production of each other
industry in order to produce each dollar of its own output.

Insider information

Relevant information about a company that has not yet been made public. It is illegal for
holders of this information to make trades based on it, however received.

Intercompany loan

Loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation.

Intercompany transaction

Transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation.


For companies: Raw materials, items available for sale or in the process of being made ready for
sale. They can be individually valued by several different means, including cost or current market value, and
collectively by FIFO, LIFO or other techniques. The lower value of alternatives is usually used to preclude
overstating earnings and assets.
For security firms: securities bought and held by a broker or dealer for resale.

Inventory loan

A secured short-term loan to purchase inventory. The three basic forms are a blanket
inventory lien, a trust receipt, and field warehousing financing.

Inventory turnover

The ratio of annual sales to average inventory which measures the speed that inventory
is produced and sold. Low turnover is an unhealthy sign, indicating excess stocks and/or poor sales.

Investor fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, risk that occurs when the originator commits loan terms to the
borrowers and gets commitments from investors at the time of application, or if both sets of terms are made at closing.

Just-in-time inventory systems

Systems that schedule materials/inventory to arrive exactly as they are
needed in the production process.

Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)

A method of valuing inventory that uses the cost of the most recent item in
inventory first.

Level-coupon bond

Bond with a stream of coupon payments that are the same throughout the life of the bond.

Leveraged buyout (LBO)

A transaction used for taking a public corporation private financed through the use
of debt funds: bank loans and bonds. Because of the large amount of debt relative to equity in the new
corporation, the bonds are typically rated below investment grade, properly referred to as high-yield bonds or
junk bonds. Investors can participate in an LBO through either the purchase of the debt (i.e., purchase of the
bonds or participation in the bank loan) or the purchase of equity through an LBO fund that specializes in
such investments.

LIFO (Last-in-first-out)

The last-in-first-out inventory valuation methodology. A method of valuing
inventory that uses the cost of the most recent item in inventory first.


With PAC bond CMO classes, the period before the PAC sinking fund becomes effective. With
multifamily loans, the period of time during which prepayment is prohibited.

Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.

Low-coupon bond refunding

Refunding of a low coupon bond with a new, higher coupon bond.

Long coupons

1) Bonds or notes with a long current maturity.
2) A bond on which one of the coupon
periods, usually the first, is longer than the other periods or the standard period.

Management buyout (MBO)

Leveraged buyout whereby the acquiring group is led by the firm's management.

Netting out

To get or bring in as a net; to clear as profit.

Normal annuity form

The manner in which retirement benefits are paid out.


The method of trading used at futures exchanges, typically involving calling out the specific
details of a buy or sell order, so that the information is available to all traders.

Out-of-the-money option

A call option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is greater than the market price
of the underlying security. A put option is out-of-the-money if the strike price is less than the market price of
the underlying security.

Outright rate

Actual forward rate expressed in dollars per currency unit, or vice versa.
he practice of purchasing a significant percentage of intermediate components from outside suppliers.

Outstanding share capital

Issued share capital less the par value of shares that are held in the company's treasury.

Outstanding shares

Shares that are currently owned by investors.


when a security is expected to appreciate at a rate faster than the overall market.

Pass-through coupon rate

The interest rate paid on a securitized pool of assets, which is less than the rate
paid on the underlying loans by an amount equal to the servicing and guaranteeing fees.

Payout ratio

Generally, the proportion of earnings paid out to the common stockholders as cash dividends.
More specifically, the firm's cash dividend divided by the firm's earnings in the same reporting period.

Performance attribution analysis

The decomposition of a money manager's performance results to explain
the reasons why those results were achieved. This analysis seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What
were the major sources of added value? (2) Was short-term factor timing statistically significant? (3) Was
market timing statistically significant? And (4), Was security selection statistically significant?

Performance evaluation

The evaluation of a manager's performance which involves, first, determining
whether the money manager added value by outperforming the established benchmark (performance
measurement) and, second, determining how the money manager achieved the calculated return (performance
attribution analysis).

Performance measurement

The calculation of the return realized by a money manager over some time interval.

Performance shares

Shares of stock given to managers on the basis of performance as measured by earnings
per share and similar criteria. A control device used by shareholders to tie management to the self-interest of

Priced out

The market has already incorporated information, such as a low dividend, into the price of a stock.

Pro forma capital structure analysis

A method of analyzing the impact of alternative capital structure
choices on a firm's credit statistics and reported financial results, especially to determine whether the firm will
be able to use projected tax shield benefits fully.

Pro forma financial statements

Financial statements as adjusted to reflect a projected or planned transaction.

Pro forma statement

A financial statement showing the forecast or projected operating results and balance
sheet, as in pro forma income statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows.

Semi-strong form efficiency

A form of pricing efficiency where the price of the security fully reflects all
public information (including, but not limited to, historical price and trading patterns). Compare weak form
efficiency and strong form efficiency.

Strong-form efficiency

Pricing efficiency, where the price of a, security reflects all information, whether or
not it is publicly available. Related: Weak form efficiency, semi strong form efficiency


A cash surplus generated by the sale of one block of securities and the purchase of another, e.g.
selling a block of bonds at 99 and buying another block at 95. Also, a bid made to a seller of a security that is
designed (and generally agreed) to take him out of the market.

Target payout ratio

A firm's long-run dividend-to-earnings ratio. The firm's policy is to attempt to pay out a
certain percentage of earnings, but it pays a stated dollar dividend and adjusts it to the target as base-line
increases in earnings occur.

Tax Reform Act of 1986

A 1986 law involving a major overhaul of the U.S. tax code.

Technical condition of a market

Demand and supply factors affecting price, in particular the net position,
either long or short, of the dealer community.


when a security is expected to appreciate at a slower rate than the overall market.

Unit benefit formula

Method used to determine a participant's benefits in a defined benefit plan by
multiplying years of service by the percentage of salary.

Weak form efficiency

A form of pricing efficiency where the price of the security reflects the past price and
trading history of the security. In such a market, security prices follow a random walk. Related: Semistrong
form efficiency, strong form efficiency.

Weighted average coupon

The weighted average of the gross interest rate of the mortgages underlying the
pool as of the pool issue date, with the balance of each mortgage used as the weighting factor.


If 70 were bid in the market and there was no offer, the quote would be "70 bid without." The
expression "without" indicates a one-way market.

Without recourse

Without the lender having any right to seek payment or seize assets in the event of
nonpayment from anyone other than the party (such as a special-purpose entity) specified in the debt contract.


Informal arrangement between a borrower and creditors.

Workout period

Realignment period of a temporary misaligned yield relationship that sometimes occurs in
fixed income markets.

Zero coupon bond

Such a debt security pays an investor no interest. It is sold at a discount to its face price
and matures in one year or longer.

Zero-coupon bond

A bond in which no periodic coupon is paid over the life of the contract. Instead, both the
principal and the interest are paid at the maturity date.

FIFO (First In, First Out)

An inventory valuation method that presumes that the first units received were the first ones


The number of times a company sold out and replaced its average stock of goods in a year. The formula is:
(Cost of goods sold) / (Average inventory (beginning inventory + ending)/2 )

LIFO (Last In, First Out)

An inventory valuation method that presumes that the last units received were the first ones







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