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Definition of Stackability

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The ability to safely stack multiple layers of the same SKU on top of
each other.

Related Terms:

DLOM (discount for lack of marketability)

an amount or percentage deducted from an equity interest to reflect lack of marketability.

QMDM (quantitative marketability discount model)

model for calculating DLOM for minority interests r the discount rate

Asset/liability management

Also called surplus management, the task of managing funds of a financial
institution to accomplish the two goals of a financial institution:
1) to earn an adequate return on funds invested, and
2) to maintain a comfortable surplus of assets beyond liabilities.

Availability float

Checks deposited by a company that have not yet been cleared.

Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.

Blow-off top

A steep and rapid increase in price followed by a steep and rapid drop. This is an indicator seen
in charts and used in technical analysis of stock price and market trends.

Common stock/other equity

Value of outstanding common shares at par, plus accumulated retained
earnings. Also called shareholders' equity.

Stackability Image 1

Contingent pension liability

Under ERISA, the firm is liable to the plan participants for up to 39% of the net
worth of the firm.

Cumulative probability distribution

A function that shows the probability that the random variable will
attain a value less than or equal to each value that the random variable can take on.

Forward looking multiple

A truncated expression for a P/E ratio that is based on forward (expected)
earnings rather than on trailing earnings.

Futures contract multiple

A constant, set by an exchange, which when multiplied by the futures price gives
the dollar value of a stock index futures contract.


A financial obligation, or the cash outlay that must be made at a specific time to satisfy the
contractual terms of such an obligation.

Liability funding strategies

Investment strategies that select assets so that cash flows will equal or exceed
the client's obligations.

Liability swap

An interest rate swap used to alter the cash flow characteristics of an institution's liabilities so
as to provide a better match with its assets.

Limited liability

Limitation of possible loss to what has already been invested.

Limited-liability instrument

A security, such as a call option, in which the owner can only lose his initial

Stackability Image 2

Limited-liability instrument

A security, such as a call option, in which the owner can only lose his initial investment.


A negotiable security is said to have good marketability if there is an active secondary market
in which it can easily be resold.

Multiple rates of return

More than one rate of return from the same project that make the net present value
of the project equal to zero. This situation arises when the IRR method is used for a project in which negative
cash flows follow positive cash flows. For each sign change in the cash flows, there is a rate of return.

Multiple regression

The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable.


Another name for price/earnings ratios.

Multiple-discriminant analysis (MDA)

Statistical technique for distinguishing between two groups on the
basis of their observed characteristics.

Multiple-issuer pools

Under the GNMA-II program, pools formed through the aggregation of individual
issuers' loan packages.

Nondiversifiability of human capital

The difficulty of diversifying one's human capital (the unique
capabilities and expertise of individuals) and employment effort.

Normal probability distribution

A probability distribution for a continuous random variable that is forms a
symmetrical bell-shaped curve around the mean.

Options contract multiple

A constant, set at $100, which when multiplied by the cash index value gives the
dollar value of the stock index underlying an option. That is, dollar value of the underlying stock index = cash
index value x $100 (the options contract multiple).

Other capital

In the balance of payments, other capital is a residual category that groups all the capital
transactions that have not been included in direct investment, portfolio investment, and reserves categories. It
is divided into long-term capital and short-term capital and, because of its residual status, can differ from
country to country. Generally speaking, other long-term capital includes most non-negotiable instruments of a
year or more like bank loans and mortgages. other short-term capital includes financial assets of less than a
year such as currency, deposits, and bills.

Other current assets

Value of non-cash assets, including prepaid expenses and accounts receivable, due
within 1 year.

Other long term liabilities

Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.

Other sources

Amount of funds generated during the period from operations by sources other than
depreciation or deferred taxes. Part of Free cash flow calculation.

P/E ratio (PE ratio / multiple)

Assume XYZ Co. sells for $25.50 per share and has earned $2.55 per share this year; $25. 50 = 10
times $2. 55
XYZ stock sells for 10 times earnings. P/E = Current stock price divided by trailing annual earnings per
share or expected annual earnings per share.


The relative likelihood of a particular outcome among all possible outcomes.

Probability density function

The probability function for a continuous random variable.

Probability distribution

Also called a probability function, a function that describes all the values that the random variable can
take and the probability associated with each.

Probability function

A function that assigns a probability to each and every possible outcome.

Profitability index

The present value of the future cash flows divided by the initial investment. Also called
the benefit-cost ratio.

Profitability ratios

Ratios that focus on the profitability of the firm. Profit margins measure performance
with relation to sales. Rate of return ratios measure performance relative to some measure of size of the

Risk-adjusted profitability

A probability used to determine a "sure" expected value (sometimes called a
certainty equivalent) that would be equivalent to the actual risky expected value.

Stop-loss order

An order to sell a stock when the price falls to a specified level.

Stop order (or stop)

An order to buy or sell at the market when a definite price is reached, either above (on a
buy) or below (on a sell) the price that prevailed when the order was given.

Stopping curve

A curve showing the refunding rates for different points in time at which the expected value
of refunding immediately equals the expected value of waiting to refund.

Stopping curve refunding rate

A refunding rate that falls on the stopping curve.

Stop-limit order

A stop order that designates a price limit. In contrast to the stop order, which becomes a
market order once the stop is reached, the stop-limit order becomes a limit order once the stop is reached.

Top-down equity management style

A management style that begins with an assessment of the overall
economic environment and makes a general asset allocation decision regarding various sectors of the financial
markets and various industries. The bottom-up manager, in contrast, selects the specific securities within the
favored sectors.

Trade on top of

Trade at a narrow or no spread in basis points relative to some other bond yield, usually
Treasury bonds.

Unlimited liability

Full liability for the debt and other obligations of a legal entity. The general partners of a
partnership have unlimited liability.


The process of satisfying stakeholders in the organization that managers have acted in the best interests of the stakeholders, a result of the stewardship function of managers, which takes place through accounting.

Profitability index

See cash value added.

Probability Distribution

A list of all possible outcomes and the chance of each outcome

Profitability Index

A method for determining the profitability of an investment. It is
calculated by dividing the present value of the future net cash flows
by the initial cash investment.

design for manufacturability (DFM)

a process that is part of the project management of a new product; concerned with finding optimal solutions to minimizing product failures
and other adversities in the delivery of a new product
to customers

limited liability company

an organizational form that is a hybrid of the corporate and partnership organizational
forms and used to limit the personal liability of the owners;
it is typically used by small professional (such as accounting) firms

limited liability partnership

an organizational form that is a hybrid of the corporate and partnership organizational
forms and used to limit the personal liability of the owners;
it is typically used by large professional (such as accounting) firms

multiple regression

a statistical technique that uses two or
more independent variables to predict a dependent variable

probability distribution

a range of possible values for which each value has an assigned likelihood of occurrence

profitability index (Pl)

a ratio that compares the present value of net cash flows to the present value of the net investment

Current liability

This is typically the accounts payable, short-term notes payable, and
accrued expense accounts on the balance sheet, or any other liabilities that are
expected to be liquidated within a short time interval.


A dollar amount of obligation payable to another entity.

Other assets

A cluster of accounts that are listed after fixed assets on the balance sheet,
and which contain minor assets that cannot be reasonably fit into any of the other
main asset categories.

availability float

Checks already deposited that have not yet been cleared.

limited liability

The owners of the corporation are not personally responsible for its obligations.

price-earnings (P/E) multiple (ratio)

Ratio of stock price to earnings per share.

profitability index

Ratio of net present value to initial investment.

Multiple Deposit Creation

The process whereby the money multiplier operates.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)

A federal Act expanding upon many of the insurance reforms created by
COBRA. In particular, it ensures that small businesses will have access to
health insurance, despite the special health status of any employees.

State Disability Tax

A tax charged by selected states to maintain a disability insurance
fund, from which payments are made to employees who are unable to
work due to illness or injury.

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

Cumulative gains or losses reported in shareholders'
equity that arise from changes in the fair value of available-for-sale securities, from the
effects of changes in foreign-currency exchange rates on consolidated foreign-currency financial
statements, certain gains and losses on financial derivatives, and from adjustments for underfunded
pension plans.

Contingent Liability

An obligation that is dependent on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of
one or more future events to confirm the existence of an obligation, the amount owed, the payee,
or the date payable.

Deferred Tax Liability

Future tax obligation that results from the origination of a temporary
difference that causes pretax book income to exceed taxable income.


A probable future sacrifice of economic benefits arising from present obligations of
a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of
past transactions or events.

Other-than-Temporary Decline in Market Value

The standard used to describe a decline in market value that is not expected to recover. The use of the other-than-temporary description as
opposed to describing a loss as permanent stresses the fact that the burden of proof is on the
investor who believes a decline is only temporary. That investor must have the intent and financial
ability to hold the investment until its market value recovers. In the absence of an ability to
demonstrate that a decline is temporary, the conclusion must be that a decline in value is other
than temporary, in which case the decline in value must be recognized in income.


Acronym for Stock Keeping Unit, which is an item used at a single location.


The ability to track the components used in production through their
inclusion in a finished product and from there to specific customers.

Disability Insurance

Insurance that pays you an ongoing income if you become disabled and are unable to pursue employment or business activities. There are limits to how much you can receive based on your pre-disability earnings. Rates will vary based on occupational duties and length of time in a particular industry. This kind of coverage has a waiting period before you can begin collecting benefits, usually 30, 60 or 90 days. The benefit paying period also varies from 2 years to age 65. A short waiting period will cost more that a longer waiting period. As well, a long benefit paying period will cost more than a short benefit paying period.

stop payment

A service which enables you to request a 'stop' on any cheque or other pre-authorized payment, as long as the funds have not yet been disbursed. For example, you might request a stop payment on a post-dated cheque if you no longer need the product or service for which that cheque was initially written.


Inability to work due to injury or sickness.

Disability Insurance (Credit Insurance)

Group Insurance designed to cover monthly obligations due to a borrower being unable to work due to sickness or injury.

Evidence of Insurability

Evidence submitted to Canada Life that is used to determine whether an individual is eligible for the insurance coverage the individual has applied for.

Multiple Lives

Two or more death benefits based on one definition with different insureds.







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