Financial Terms Cumulative probability distribution

# Definition of Cumulative probability distribution

## Cumulative probability distribution

A function that shows the probability that the random variable will
attain a value less than or equal to each value that the random variable can take on.

# Related Terms:

## CARs (cumulative abnormal returns)

a measure used in academic finance articles to measure the excess returns an investor would have received over a particular time period if he or she were invested in a particular stock.
This is typically used in control and takeover studies, where stockholders are paid a premium for being taken over. Starting some time period before the takeover (often five days before the first announced bid, but sometimes a longer period), the researchers calculate the actual daily stock returns for the target firm and subtract out the expected market returns (usually calculated using the firmâ€™s beta and applying it to overall market movements during the time period under observation).
The excess actual return over the capital asset pricing model-determined expected return market is called an â€˜â€˜abnormal return.â€™â€™ The cumulation of the daily abnormal returns over the time period under observation is the CAR. The term CAR(-5, 0) means the CAR calculated from five days before the
announcement to the day of announcement. The CAR(-1, 0) is a control premium, although Mergerstat generally uses the stock price five days before announcement rather than one day before announcement as the denominator in its control premium calculation. However, the CAR for any period other than (-1, 0) is not mathematically equivalent to a control premium.

## Base probability of loss

The probability of not achieving a portfolio expected return.

## Cumulative abnormal return (CAR)

Sum of the differences between the expected return on a stock and the
actual return that comes from the release of news to the market.

## Cumulative dividend feature

A requirement that any missed preferred or preference stock dividends be paid
in full before any common dividend payment is made.

## Cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose dividends accrue, should the issuer not make timely
dividend payments. Related: non-cumulative preferred stock.

## Cumulative Translation Adjustment (CTA) account

An entry in a translated balance sheet in which gains
and/or losses from translation have been accumulated over a period of years. The CTA account is required
under the FASB No. 52 rule.

## Cumulative voting

A system of voting for directors of a corporation in which shareholder's total number of
votes is equal to his number of shares held times the number of candidates.

## Distributions

Payments from fund or corporate cash flow. May include dividends from earnings, capital
gains from sale of portfolio holdings and return of capital. Fund distributions can be made by check or by
investing in additional shares. Funds are required to distribute capital gains (if any) to shareholders at least
once per year. Some Corporations offer Dividend Reinvestment Plans (DRP).

## Frequency distribution

The organization of data to show how often certain values or ranges of values occur.

## Lognormal distribution

A distribution where the logarithm of the variable follows a normal distribution.
Lognormal distributions are used to describe returns calculated over periods of a year or more.

## Non-cumulative preferred stock

Preferred stock whose holders must forgo dividend payments when the
company misses a dividend payment.
Related: cumulative preferred stock

## Normal probability distribution

A probability distribution for a continuous random variable that is forms a
symmetrical bell-shaped curve around the mean.

## Probability

The relative likelihood of a particular outcome among all possible outcomes.

## Probability density function

The probability function for a continuous random variable.

## Probability distribution

Also called a probability function, a function that describes all the values that the random variable can
take and the probability associated with each.

## Probability function

A function that assigns a probability to each and every possible outcome.

## Skewed distribution

probability distribution in which an unequal number of observations lie below and
above the mean.

## Standardized normal distribution

A normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.

## Probability Distribution

A list of all possible outcomes and the chance of each outcome
occurring

## distribution cost

a cost incurred to warehouse, transport, or deliver a product or service

## probability distribution

a range of possible values for which each value has an assigned likelihood of occurrence

## Normal (bell-shaped) distribution

In statistics, a theoretical frequency
distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped

## cumulative voting

Voting system in which all the votes one shareholder is allowed to cast can be cast for one candidate for the board of directors.

The cumulative, after-tax, prior-year effect of a change in accounting
principle. It is reported as a single line item on the income statement in the year of the
change in accounting principle. The cumulative-effect-type adjustment is the most common accounting
treatment afforded changes in accounting principle.

## Cumulative Effect of Accounting Change

The change in earnings of previous years assuming

## Cumulative Effect of a Change in Accounting Principle

The change in earnings of previous years
based on the assumption that a newly adopted accounting principle had previously been in use.

## Distribution center

A branch warehouse containing finished goods and service
items intended for distribution directly to customers.

## Distribution inventory

Inventory intended for shipment to customers, usually
comprised of finished goods and service items.