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Short-term solvency ratios

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Definition of Short-term solvency ratios

Short-term Solvency Ratios Image 1

Short-term solvency ratios

ratios used to judge the adequacy of liquid assets for meeting short-term
obligations as they come due, including
1) the current ratio,
2) the acid-test ratio,
3) the inventory turnover ratio, and
4) the accounts receivable turnover ratio.



Related Terms:

Accounting insolvency

Total liabilities exceed total assets. A firm with a negative net worth is insolvent on
the books.


Asset activity ratios

ratios that measure how effectively the firm is managing its assets.


Capitalization ratios

Also called financial leverage ratios, these ratios compare debt to total capitalization
and thus reflect the extent to which a corporation is trading on its equity. Capitalization ratios can be
interpreted only in the context of the stability of industry and company earnings and cash flow.


Coefficient of determination

A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and
independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an
asset explained by the market portfolio return.


coefficient of determination

a measure of dispersion that
indicates the “goodness of fit” of the actual observations
to the least squares regression line; indicates what proportion
of the total variation in y is explained by the regression model



Common stock ratios

ratios that are designed to measure the relative claims of stockholders to earnings
(cash flow per share), and equity (book value per share) of a firm.


Coverage ratios

ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of
meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed charge coverage ratio.


Short-term Solvency Ratios Image 2

Credit Terms

Conditions under which credit is extended by a lender to a borrower.


Customary payout ratios

A range of payout ratios that is typical based on an analysis of comparable firms.


Deterministic models

Liability-matching models that assume that the liability payments and the asset cash
flows are known with certainty. Related: Compare stochastic models


Disintermediation

Withdrawal of funds from a financial institution in order to invest them directly.


Euro-medium term note (Euro-MTN)

A non-underwritten Euronote issued directly to the market. Euro-
MTNs are offered continuously rather than all at once as a bond issue is. Most Euro-MTN maturities are
under five years.


Feasible target payout ratios

Payout ratios that are consistent with the availability of excess funds to make
cash dividend payments.


Financial intermediaries

Institutions that provide the market function of matching borrowers and lenders or
traders.


financial intermediary

Firm that raises money from many small investors and provides financing to businesses or other
organizations by investing in their securities.


Financial Intermediary

Any institution, such as a bank, that takes deposits from savers and loans them to borrowers.


Short-term Solvency Ratios Image 3

Financial Intermediation

The process whereby financial intermediaries channel funds from lender/savers to borrower/spenders.


Financial leverage ratios

Related: capitalization ratios.



Flexible Term

Optional periods of time which the conditions of a contract will be carried out.


Insolvency risk

The risk that a firm will be unable to satisfy its debts. Also known as bankruptcy risk.


Intermarket sector

spread The spread between the interest rate offered in two sectors of the bond market for
issues of the same maturity.


Intermarket spread swaps

An exchange of one bond for another based on the manager's projection of a
realignment of spreads between sectors of the bond market.


Intermediary

An independent third party that may act as a mediator during negotiations.


Intermediate Good

A good used in producing another good.


Intermediate-term

Typically 1-10 years.


Intermediation

Investment through a financial institution. Related: disintermediation.


Leverage ratios

Measures of the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firm's ability
to pay financing charges. Value of firm's debt to the total value of the firm.


Liquidity ratios

ratios that measure a firm's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations on time.



Liquidity ratios

ratios that measure a firm's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations on time.


Liquidity theory of the term structure

A biased expectations theory that asserts that the implied forward
rates will not be a pure estimate of the market's expectations of future interest rates because they embody a
liquidity premium.


Long-term

In accounting information, one year or greater.


Long-term assets

Value of property, equipment and other capital assets minus the depreciation. This is an
entry in the bookkeeping records of a company, usually on a "cost" basis and thus does not necessarily reflect
the market value of the assets.


Long-term debt

An obligation having a maturity of more than one year from the date it was issued. Also
called funded debt.


Long-term debt

A debt for which payments will be required for a period of more than
one year into the future.


Long Term Debt

Liability due in a year or more.


Long-term debt/capitalization

Indicator of financial leverage. Shows long-term debt as a proportion of the
capital available. Determined by dividing long-term debt by the sum of long-term debt, preferred stock and
common stockholder equity.


Long-term debt ratio

The ratio of long-term debt to total capitalization.


Long-term debt to equity ratio

A capitalization ratio comparing long-term debt to shareholders' equity.


Long-term financial plan

Financial plan covering two or more years of future operations.


Long-term liabilities

Amount owed for leases, bond repayment and other items due after 1 year.


LONG-TERM LIABILITIES

Bills that are payable in more than one year, such as a mortgage or bonds.


Long-term liabilities

Amounts owing after more than one year.


Longer-Term Fixed Assets

Assets having a useful life greater than one year but the duration of the 'long term' will vary with the context in which the term is applied.


Market value ratios

ratios that relate the market price of the firm's common stock to selected financial
statement items.


Medium-term note

A corporate debt instrument that is continuously offered to investors over a period of
time by an agent of the issuer. Investors can select from the following maturity bands: 9 months to 1 year,
more than 1 year to 18 months, more than 18 months to 2 years, etc., up to 30 years.


Other long term liabilities

Value of leases, future employee benefits, deferred taxes and other obligations
not requiring interest payments that must be paid over a period of more than 1 year.


predetermined overhead rate

an estimated constant charge per unit of activity used to assign overhead cost to production or services of the period; it is calculated by dividing total budgeted annual overhead at a selected level of volume or activity by that selected measure of volume or activity; it is also the standard overhead application rate


profit ratios

ratios based on sales revenue for a period. A measure of
profit is divided by sales revenue to compute a profit ratio. For example,
gross margin is divided by sales revenue to compute the gross margin
profit ratio. Dividing bottom-line profit (net income) by sales revenue
gives the profit ratio that is generally called return on sales.


Profitability ratios

ratios that focus on the profitability of the firm. Profit margins measure performance
with relation to sales. Rate of return ratios measure performance relative to some measure of size of the
investment.


Rate of return ratios

ratios that are designed to measure the profitability of the firm in relation to various
measures of the funds invested in the firm.


Repayment Terms

The length of time given a borrower by a lender to repay a debt and the frequency of principal payments which the borrower has to meet.


Reserve ratios

Specified percentages of deposits, established by the Federal Reserve Board, that banks must
keep in a non-interest-bearing account at one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks.


Selling short

If an investor thinks the price of a stock is going down, the investor could borrow the stock from
a broker and sell it. Eventually, the investor must buy the stock back on the open market. For instance, you
borrow 1000 shares of XYZ on July 1 and sell it for $8 per share. Then, on Aug 1, you purchase 1000 shares
of XYZ at $7 per share. You've made $1000 (less commissions and other fees) by selling short.


Short

One who has sold a contract to establish a market position and who has not yet closed out this position
through an offsetting purchase; the opposite of a long position. Related: Long.


Short bonds

Bonds with short current maturities.


Short book

See: unmatched book.


Short hedge

The sale of a futures contract(s) to eliminate or lessen the possible decline in value ownership of
an approximately equal amount of the actual financial instrument or physical commodity.
Related: Long hedge.


Short interest

This is the total number of shares of a security that investors have borrowed, then sold in the
hope that the security will fall in value. An investor then buys back the shares and pockets the difference as profit.


Short position

Occurs when a person sells stocks he or she does not yet own. Shares must be borrowed,
before the sale, to make "good delivery" to the buyer. Eventually, the shares must be bought to close out the
transaction. This technique is used when an investor believes the stock price will go down.


short position

The sale of an investment, particularly by someone who does not yet own it.


Short rate

The annualized one-period interest rate.


Short-run operating activities

Events and decisions concerning the short-term finance of a firm, such as
how much inventory to order and whether to offer cash terms or credit terms to customers.


Short sale

Selling a security that the seller does not own but is committed to repurchasing eventually. It is
used to capitalize on an expected decline in the security's price.


Short sale, short position

The sale of a security or financial instrument not
owned, in anticipation of a price decline and making a profit by purchasing the
instrument later at a lower price, and then delivering the instrument to
complete the sale. See Long position.


Short selling

Establishing a market position by selling a security one does not own in anticipation of the price
of that security falling.


Short squeeze

A situation in which a lack of supply tends to force prices upward.


Short straddle

A straddle in which one put and one call are sold.


Short-term financial plan

A financial plan that covers the coming fiscal year.


Short-term investment services

Services that assist firms in making short-term investments.


Short-term tax exempts

short-term securities issued by states, municipalities, local housing agencies, and
urban renewal agencies.


Shortage cost

Costs that fall with increases in the level of investment in current assets.


shortage costs

Costs incurred from shortages in current assets.


Shortfall risk

The risk of falling short of any investment target.


solvency

Refers to the ability of a business to pay its liabilities on time
when they come due for payment. A business may be insolvent, which
means that it is not able to pay its liabilities and debts on time. The current
ratio and acid test ratio are used to evaluate the short-term solvency
prospects of a business.


Technical insolvency

Default on a legal obligation of the firm. For example, technical insolvency occurs
when a firm doesn't pay a bill.


Term

See term to maturity.


Term

This is usually the duration of a loan.


term

The period of time during which a financial contract – such as a GIC or a loan – is in force.


Term

The time period during which a policy is in force, or the time it takes for a policy to reach maturity.


Term bonds

Often referred to as bullet-maturity bonds or simply bullet bonds, bonds whose principal is
payable at maturity. Related: serial bonds


Term Deposit

An interest-earning bank deposit that cannot be withdrawn without penalty until a specific time.


Term Fed Funds

Fed Funds sold for a period of time longer than overnight.


Term insurance

Provides a death benefit only, no build-up of cash value.


Term Life

A product that provides life coverage for a specified duration typically not beyond the age of 75.


Term life insurance

A contract that provides a death benefit but no cash build-up or investment component.
The premium remains constant only for a specified term of years, and the policy is usually renewable at the
end of each term.


Term Life Insurance

A plan of insurance which covers the insured for only a certain period of time and not necessarily for his or her entire life. The policy pays a death benefit only if the insured dies during the term.


Term loan

A bank loan, typically with a floating interest rate, for a specified amount that matures in between
one and ten years and requires a specified repayment schedule.


Term Loan

A secured loan made to business concerns for a specific period (normally three to ten years). It is repaid with interest, usually with periodical payments.


Term premiums

Excess of the yields to maturity on long-term bonds over those of short-term bonds.


Term repo

A repurchase agreement with a term of more than one day.
term structure of interest rates
Relationship between interest rates on bonds of different maturities usually
depicted in the form of a graph often depicted as a yield curve. Harvey shows that inverted term structures
(long rates below short rates) have preceded every recession over the past 30 years.


Term Sheet

A list of the major points of the proposed financing being offered by an investor.


Term structure

The relationship between the yields on fixed-interest
securities and their maturity dates. Expectation of changes in interest rates
affects term structure, as do liquidity preferences and hedging pressure. A
yield curve is one representation in the term structure.


Term Structure of Interest Rates

Relationship among interest rates on bonds with different terms to maturity.


Term to maturity

The time remaining on a bond's life, or the date on which the debt will cease to exist and
the borrower will have completely paid off the amount borrowed. See: Maturity.


Term to Maturity

Period of time from the present to the redemption date of a bond.


Term trust

A closed-end fund that has a fixed termination or maturity date.


Terminal Illness Insurance (Credit Insurance)

Coverage that provides a lump-sum payment should you become terminally ill. The payment is made to your creditors to pay off your debt owing.


Terminal value

The value of a bond at maturity, typically its par value, or the value of an asset (or an entire
firm) on some specified future valuation date.


Terminate

Cease all legal obligations under a contract.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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