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Definition of Securities & Exchange Commission

Securities & Exchange Commission Image 1

Securities & Exchange Commission

The SEC is a federal agency that regulates the U.S.financial markets.



Related Terms:

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

The federal agency that
oversees the issuance of and trading in securities of public businesses.
The SEC has broad powers and can suspend the trading in securities of a
business. The SEC also has primary jurisdiction in making accounting
and financial reporting rules, but over the years it has largely deferred to
the private sector for the development of generally accepted accounting
principles (GAAP).


Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Federal agency responsible for regulation of securities markets in the United
States.


Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

A federal agency that administers securities legislation,
including the securities Acts of 1933 and 1934. Public companies in the United States
must register their securities with the SEC and file with the agency quarterly and annual financial
reports.


American Stock Exchange (AMEX)

The second-largest stock exchange in the United States. It trades
mostly in small-to medium-sized companies.


Asset-Backed Securities

Bond or note secured by assets of company.



Bill of exchange

General term for a document demanding payment.


Book-entry securities

The Treasury and federal agencies are moving to a book-entry system in which securities are not represented by engraved pieces of paper but are maintained in computerized records at the
Fed in the names of member banks, which in turn keep records of the securities they own as well as those they
are holding for customers. In the case of other securities where a book-entry has developed, engraved
securities do exist somewhere in quite a few cases. These securities do not move from holder to holder but are
usually kept in a central clearinghouse or by another agent.


Securities & Exchange Commission Image 2

Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

A not-for-profit corporation owned by its members. Its primary
functions are to provide a location for trading futures and options, collect and disseminate market information,
maintain a clearing mechanism and enforce trading rules.


Commission

The fee paid to a broker to execute a trade, based on number of shares, bonds, options, and/or
their dollar value. In 1975, deregulation led to the creation of discount brokers, who charge lower
commissions than full service brokers. Full service brokers offer advice and usually have a full staff of
analysts who follow specific industries. Discount brokers simply execute a client's order -- and usually do not
offer an opinion on a stock. Also known as a round-turn.


Commission broker

A broker on the floor of an exchange acts as agent for a particular brokerage house and
who buys and sells stocks for the brokerage house on a commission basis.


Commission house

A firm which buys and sells future contracts for customer accounts. Related: futures
commission merchant, omnibus account.


Commodities Exchange Center (CEC)

The location of five New York futures exchanges: Commodity
exchange, Inc. (COMEX), the New York Mercantile exchange (NYMEX), the New York Cotton exchange,
the Coffee, Sugar and Cocoa exchange (CSC), and the New York futures exchange (NYFE). common size
statement A statement in which all items are expressed as a percentage of a base figure, useful for purposes of
analyzing trends and the changing relationship between financial statement items. For example, all items in
each year's income statement could be presented as a percentage of net sales.


Convertible exchangeable preferred stock

Convertible preferred stock that may be exchanged, at the
issuer's option, into convertible bonds that have the same conversion features as the convertible preferred
stock.


Debt securities

IOUs created through loan-type transactions - commercial paper, bank CDs, bills, bonds, and
other instruments.


Discount securities

Non-interest-bearing money market instruments that are issued at a discount and
redeemed at maturity for full face value, e.g. U.S. Treasury bills.


Effective Exchange Rate

The weighted average of several exchange rates, where the weights are determined by the extent of our trade done with each country.


Equation of Exchange

The quantity theory equation Mv = PQ.


Exchange

The marketplace in which shares, options and futures on stocks, bonds, commodities and indices
are traded. Principal US stock exchanges are: New York Stock exchange (NYSE), American Stock exchange
(AMEX) and the National Association of securities Dealers (NASDAQ)



Exchange controls

Governmental restrictions on the purchase of foreign currencies by domestic citizens or
on the purchase of the local domestic currency by foreigners.


Exchange of assets

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its assets in exchange for cash or stock.


Exchange of stock

Acquisition of another company by purchase of its stock in exchange for cash or shares.


Exchange offer

An offer by the firm to give one security, such as a bond or preferred stock, in exchange for
another security, such as shares of common stock.


Exchange rate

The price of one country's currency expressed in another country's currency.


exchange rate

Amount of one currency needed to purchase one unit of another.


Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM)

The methodology by which members of the EMS maintain their
currency exchange rates within an agreed upon range with respect to other member countries.


Exchange Rate, Nominal

The price of one currency in terms of another, in this book defined as number of units of foreign currency per dollar.


Exchange Rate, Real

The nominal exchange rate corrected for price level differences.


Exchange rate risk

Also called currency risk, the risk of an investment's value changing because of currency
exchange rates.



Exchange risk

The variability of a firm's value that results from unexpected exchange rate changes or the
extent to which the present value of a firm is expected to change as a result of a given currency's appreciation
or depreciation.


Exchangeable Security

Security that grants the security holder the right to exchange the security for the
common stock of a firm other than the issuer of the security.


Exempt securities

Instruments exempt from the registration requirements of the securities Act of 1933 or the
margin requirements of the SEC Act of 1934. Such securities include government bonds, agencies, munis,
commercial paper, and private placements.


expectations theory of exchange rates

Theory that expected spot exchange rate equals the forward rate.


Federal agency securities

securities issued by corporations and agencies created by the U.S. government,
such as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board and Ginnie Mae.


Fixed-exchange rate

A country's decision to tie the value of its currency to another country's currency, gold
(or another commodity), or a basket of currencies.


Fixed Exchange Rate

An exchange rate held constant by a government promise to buy or sell dollars at the fixed rate on the foreign exchange market.


Flexible Exchange Rate

An exchange rate whose value is determined by the forces of supply and demand on the foreign exchange market.


Floating exchange rate

A country's decision to allow its currency value to freely change. The currency is not
constrained by central bank intervention and does not have to maintain its relationship with another currency
in a narrow band. The currency value is determined by trading in the foreign exchange market.


Floating Exchange Rate

See flexible exchange rate.


Foreign exchange

Currency from another country.


Foreign Exchange

The currency of a foreign country.


Foreign exchange controls

Various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of
foreign currencies by residents or on the purchase/sale of local currency by nonresidents.


Foreign exchange dealer

A firm or individual that buys foreign exchange from one party and then sells it to
another party. The dealer makes the difference between the buying and selling prices, or spread.


Foreign Exchange Market

A worldwide market in which one country's currency is bought or sold in exchange for another country's currency.


Foreign Exchange Reserves

A fund containing the central bank's holdings of foreign currency or claims thereon.


Foreign exchange risk

The risk that a long or short position in a foreign currency might have to be closed out
at a loss due to an adverse movement in the currency rates.


Foreign exchange swap

An agreement to exchange stipulated amounts of one currency for another currency
at one or more future dates.


Forward Exchange Market

A market in which foreign exchange can be bought or sold for delivery (and payment) at some specified future date but at a price agreed upon now.


Forward exchange rate

exchange rate fixed today for exchanging currency at some future date.


forward rate of exchange

exchange rate for a forward transaction.


Futures commission merchant

A firm or person engaged in soliciting or accepting and handling orders for
the purchase or sale of futures contracts, subject to the rules of a futures exchange and, who, in connection
with such solicitation or acceptance of orders, accepts any money or securities to margin any resulting trades
or contracts. The FCM must be licensed by the CFTC. Related: commission house , omnibus account


Gold exchange standard

A system of fixing exchange rates adopted in the Bretton Woods agreement. It
involved the U.S. pegging the dollar to gold and other countries pegging their currencies to the dollar.


Government securities

Negotiable U.S. Treasury securities.


Historical exchange rate

An accounting term that refers to the exchange rate in effect when an asset or
liability was acquired.


London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

A London exchange where Eurodollar futures
as well as futures-style options are traded.


London International Financial Futures Exchange (LIFFE)

London exchange where Eurodollar futures as well as futures-style options are traded.


Manufactured housing securities (MHSs)

Loans on manufactured homes - that is, factory-built or
prefabricated housing, including mobile homes.


Medium of Exchange

Any item that can be commonly exchanged for goods and services.


Mortgage-backed securities

securities backed by a pool of mortgage loans.


Mortgage-Backed Securities Clearing Corporation

A wholly owned subsidiary of the Midwest Stock
exchange that operates a clearing service for the comparison, netting, and margining of agency-guaranteed
MBSs transacted for forward delivery.


New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

Also known as the Big Board or The Exhange. More than 2,00 common
and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the older in the United States, founded in 1792, and the
largest. It is lcoated on Wall Street in New York City


Nominal exchange rate

The actual foreign exchange quotation in contrast to the real exchange rate that has
been adjusted for changes in purchasing power.


Organized exchange

A securities marketplace wherein purchasers and sellers regularly gather to trade
securities according to the formal rules adopted by the exchange.


Pass-through securities

A pool of fixed-income securities backed by a package of assets (i.e. mortgages)
where the holder receives the principal and interest payments. Related: mortgage pass-through security


Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PHLX)

A securities exchange where American and European foreign
currency options on spot exchange rates are traded.


Project loan securities

securities backed by a variety of FHA-insured loan types - primarily multi-family
apartment buildings, hospitals, and nursing homes.


Public Securities Administration (PSA)

The trade association for primary dealers in U.S. government
securities, including MBSs.


Real Exchange Rate

exchange rate adjusted for relative price levels.


Real exchange rates

exchange rates that have been adjusted for the inflation differential between two countries.


Realizable Revenue A revenue transaction where assets received in exchange for goods and

services are readily convertible into known amounts of cash or claims to cash.


Securities

A general term for stock, bonds, or other other financial assets.


Securities analysts

Related:financial analysts


SIMEX (Singapore International Monetary Exchange)

A leading futures and options exchange in Singapore.


Spot exchange rates

exchange rate on currency for immediate delivery. Related: forward exchange rate.


spot rate of exchange

exchange rate for an immediate transaction.


Stock exchanges

Formal organizations, approved and regulated by the securities and exchange commission
(SEC), that are made up of members that use the facilities to exchange certain common stocks. The two major
national stock exchanges are the New York Stock exchange (NYSE) and the American Stock exchange (ASE
or AMEX). Five regional stock exchanges include the Midwest, Pacific, Philadelphia, Boston, and Cincinnati.
The Arizona stock exchange is an after hours electronic marketplace where anonymous participants trade
stocks via personal computers.


Stripped mortgage-backed securities (SMBSs)

securities that redistribute the cash flows from the
underlying generic MBS collateral into the principal and interest components of the MBS to enhance their use
in meeting special needs of investors.


The Exchange

A nickname for the New York stock exchange. Also known as the Big Board. More than
2,000 common and preferred stocks are traded. The exchange is the oldest in the United States, founded in
1792, and the largest. It is located on Wall Street in New York City.


Treadway Commission

Also known as the National commission on Fraudulent Financial
Reporting. A special committee formed in 1985 to investigate the underlying causes of fraudulent
financial reporting. The commission was named after its chairman, former SEC commissioner
James Treadway. The commission's report, published in 1987, stressed the need for strong
and independent audit committees for public companies.


Treasury securities

securities issued by the U.S. Department of the Treasury.


Abusive Earnings Management

A characterization used by the securities and exchange
commission to designate earnings management that results in an intentional and material misrepresentation
of results.


Division of Enforcement

A department within the securities and exchange commission that
investigates violations of securities laws.


EBBS - Earnings before the bad stuff

An acronym attributed to a member of the securities and
exchange commission staff. The reference is to earnings that have been heavily adjusted to
remove a wide range of nonrecurring, nonoperating, and noncash items.


EDGAR

The securities & exchange commission uses Electronic Data Gathering and Retrieval to transmit
company documents such as 10-Ks, 10-Qs, quarterly reports, and other SEC filings, to investors.


Fraudulent Financial Reporting

Intentional misstatements or omissions of amounts or disclosures
in financial statements done to deceive financial statement users. The term is used interchangeably
with accounting irregularities. A technical difference exists in that with fraud, it
must be shown that a reader of financial statements that contain intentional and material misstatements
must have used those financial statements to his or her detriment. In this book, accounting
practices are not alleged to be fraudulent until done so by an administrative, civil, or
criminal proceeding, such as that of the securities and exchange commission, or a court.


generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)

This important term
refers to the body of authoritative rules for measuring profit and preparing
financial statements that are included in financial reports by a business
to its outside shareowners and lenders. The development of these
guidelines has been evolving for more than 70 years. Congress passed a
law in 1934 that bestowed primary jurisdiction over financial reporting
by publicly owned businesses to the securities and exchange commission
(SEC). But the SEC has largely left the development of GAAP to the
private sector. Presently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board is
the primary (but not the only) authoritative body that makes pronouncements
on GAAP. One caution: GAAP are like a movable feast. New rules
are issued fairly frequently, old rules are amended from time to time,
and some rules established years ago are discarded on occasion. Professional
accountants have a heck of time keeping up with GAAP, that’s for
sure. Also, new GAAP rules sometimes have the effect of closing the barn
door after the horse has left. Accounting abuses occur, and only then,
after the damage has been done, are new rules issued to prevent such
abuses in the future.


Management/closely held shares

Percentage of shares held by persons closely related to a company, as
defined by the securities and exchange commission. Part of these percentages often is included in
Institutional Holdings -- making the combined total of these percentages over 100. There is overlap as
institutions sometimes acquire enough stock to be considered by the SEC to be closely allied to the company.


SEC

The securities and exchange commission, the primary federal regulatory agency of the securities
industry.


SEC

See securities and exchange commission.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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