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Restructuring Charges

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Definition of Restructuring Charges

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Restructuring Charges

Costs associated with restructuring activities, including the consolidation and/or relocation of operations or the disposition or abandonment of operations or productive assets.
Such charges may be incurred in connection with a business combination, a change in an enterprise's strategic plan, or a managerial response to declines in demand, increasing costs, or other environmental factors.



Related Terms:

restructuring

Process of changing the firm’s capital structure without changing its assets.


Restructuring Charge

A special, nonrecurring charge taken in conjunction with a consolidation
or relocation of operations, or the disposition or abandonment of operations or productive
assets. Such charges may include impairment losses as well as other expenses, such as writedowns
of other assets including accounts receivable and inventory, and accruals of liabilities for
so-called exit costs, including such expenses as lease terminations, closure costs, severance pay,
benefits, and retraining.


Special Charges

Nonrecurring losses or expenses resulting from transactions or events which,
in the view of management, are not representative of normal business activities of the period and
which affect comparability of earnings.


charge-back system

a system using transfer prices; see transfer
price


Contingent deferred sales charge (CDSC)

The formal name for the load of a back-end load fund.



Fixed-charge coverage ratio

A measure of a firm's ability to meet its fixed-charge obligations: the ratio of
(net earnings before taxes plus interest charges paid plus long-term lease payments) to (interest charges paid
plus long-term lease payments).


Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio

A measure of how well a company is able to meet its fixed
charges (interest and lease payments) based on the cash
generated by its operations. It is calculated by dividing the
earnings before interest and taxes by the total interest charges
and lease payments incurred by the firm.


Restructuring Charges Image 1

Floating Charge

charge or assignment on a company's total assets as security for a loan on total assets without specifying specific assets.


Noncash charge

A cost, such as depreciation, depletion, and amortization, that does not involve any cash outflow.


Redemption charge

The commission charged by a mutual fund when redeeming shares. For example, a 2%
redemption charge (also called a "back end load") on the sale of shares valued at $1000 will result in payment of $980 (or 98% of the value) to the investor. This charge may decrease or be eliminated as shares are held for
longer time periods.


Sales charge

The fee charged by a mutual fund when purchasing shares, usually payable as a commission to
marketing agent, such as a financial advisor, who is thus compensated for his assistance to a purchaser. It
represents the difference, if any, between the share purchase price and the share net asset value.


Special Charges

Nonrecurring losses or expenses resulting from transactions or events which,
in the view of management, are not representative of normal business activities of the period and
which affect comparability of earnings.


Surrender Charge

Expense charges applied when the owner of a policy surrenders a policy for its cash value.


12B-1 fees

The percent of a mutual fund's assets used to defray marketing and distribution expenses. The
amount of the fee is stated in the fund's prospectus. The SEC has recently proposed that 12B-1 fees in excess
of 0.25% be classed as a load. A true " no load" fund has neither a sales charge nor 12b-1 fee.


12b-1 funds

Mutual funds that do not charge an upfront or back-end commission, but instead take out up to
1.25% of average daily fund assets each year to cover the costs of selling and marketing shares, an
arrangement allowed by the SEC's Rule 12b-I (passed in 1980).


Absorption costing

A method of costing in which all fixed and variable production costs are charged to products or services using an allocation base.


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Accumulated depreciation

A contra-fixed asset account representing the portion of the cost of a fixed asset that has been previously charged to expense. Each fixed asset account will have its own associated accumulated depreciation account.


Activity-based costing (ABC)

A cost allocation system that compiles costs and assigns
them to activities based on relevant activity drivers. The cost of these activities can
then be charged to products or customers to arrive at a much more relevant allocation
of costs than was previously the case.



actual cost system

a valuation method that uses actual direct
material, direct labor, and overhead charges in determining
the cost of Work in Process Inventory


Allowance for bad debts

An offset to the accounts receivable balance, against which
bad debts are charged. The presence of this allowance allows one to avoid severe
changes in the period-to-period bad debt expense by expensing a steady amount to
the allowance account in every period, rather than writing off large bad debts to
expense on an infrequent basis.


annual return

The fund return, for any 12-month period, including changes in unit value and the reinvestment of distributions, but not taking into account sales, redemption, distribution or other optional charges or income taxes payable by any unitholder that would reduce returns.


Back office

Brokerage house clerical operations that support, but do not include, the trading of stocks and
other securities. Includes all written confirmation and settlement of trades, record keeping and regulatory
compliance.
Back-end loan fund
A mutual fund that charges investors a fee to sell (redeem) shares, often ranging from
4% to 6%. Some back-end load funds impose a full commission if the shares are redeemed within a
designated time, such as one year. The commission decreases the longer the investor holds the shares. The
formal name for the back-end load is the contingent deferred sales charge, or CDSC.


Benefit Ratio Method

The proportion of unemployment benefits paid to a company’s
former employees during the measurement period, divided by the total
payroll during the period. This calculation is used by states to determine the unemployment
contribution rate to charge employers.


Benefit Wage Ratio Method

The proportion of total taxable wages for laid off
employees during the measurement period divided by the total payroll during
the period. This calculation is used by states to determine the unemployment
contribution rate to charge employers.


Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Capitalize

In Finance: to find the present value of a stream of cash flows.
In Accounting: to reflect costs of the balance sheet rather than charge them off through the income statement, as to capitalize major repairs to a fixed asset.


Cash flow

In investments, it represents earnings before depreciation , amortization and non-cash charges.
Sometimes called cash earnings. Cash flow from operations (called funds from operations ) by real estate and
other investment trusts is important because it indicates the ability to pay dividends.


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Cash Flow

In investments, NET INCOME plus DEPRECIATION and other noncash charges. In this sense, it is synonymous with CASH EARNINGS. Investors focus on cash flow from operations because of their concern with a firm's ability to pay dividends.



Clearing house / Clearinghouse

An adjunct to a futures exchange through which transactions executed its floor are settled by a
process of matching purchases and sales. A clearing organization is also charged with the proper conduct of
delivery procedures and the adequate financing of the entire operation.


Commission

The fee paid to a broker to execute a trade, based on number of shares, bonds, options, and/or
their dollar value. In 1975, deregulation led to the creation of discount brokers, who charge lower
commissions than full service brokers. Full service brokers offer advice and usually have a full staff of
analysts who follow specific industries. Discount brokers simply execute a client's order -- and usually do not
offer an opinion on a stock. Also known as a round-turn.


Committee, AIMR Performance Presentation Standards Implementation Committee

The Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR)'s Performance Presentation Standards Implementation
Committee is charged with the responsibility to interpret, revise and update the AIMR Performance
Presentation Standards (AIMR-PPS(TM)) for portfolio performance presentations.


Contribution Rate

The percentage tax charged by a state to an employer to
cover its share of the state unemployment insurance fund.


Convertible Debenture

Are debt instruments that are convertible into common or preferred shares, take secondary or no security against assets, have flexible terms of repayment and charge fixed or floating interest rates.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Cost of Debt

The cost of debt (bonds, loans, etc.) that a company is charged for
borrowing funds. A component of the cost of capital.


Cost of goods sold

The charge to expense of the direct materials, direct labor, and
allocated overhead costs associated with products sold during a defined accounting
period.


Coverage ratios

Ratios used to test the adequacy of cash flows generated through earnings for purposes of
meeting debt and lease obligations, including the interest coverage ratio and the fixed charge coverage ratio.


Creative Acquisition Accounting

The allocation to expense of a greater portion of the price
paid for another company in an acquisition in an effort to reduce acquisition-year earnings and
boost future-year earnings. Acquisition-year expense charges include purchased in-process research
and development and an overly aggressive accrual of costs required to effect the acquisition.


Custodial fees Fees

charged by an institution that holds securities in safekeeping for an investor.


Debt-service coverage ratio

Earnings before interest and income taxes plus one-third rental charges, divided
by interest expense plus one-third rental charges plus the quantity of principal repayments divided by one
minus the tax rate.


Depreciation expense

An expense account that represents the portion of the cost of an asset that is being charged to expense during the current period.


differentiation strategy

a technique for avoiding competition by distinguishing a product or service from that of competitors through adding sufficient value (including quality and/or features) that customers are willing to pay
a higher price than that charged by competitors


Direct costing

A costing methodology that only assigns direct labor and material costs
to a product, and which does not include any allocated indirect costs (which are all
charged off to the current period).


Discount rate

The interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges a bank to borrow funds when a bank is
temporarily short of funds. Collateral is necessary to borrow, and such borrowing is quite limited because the
Fed views it as a privilege to be used to meet short-term liquidity needs, and not a device to increase earnings.


Dividend reinvestment plan (DRP)

Automatic reinvestment of shareholder dividends in more shares of a
company's stock, often without commissions. Some plans provide for the purchase of additional shares at a
discount to market price. Dividend reinvestment plans allow shareholders to accumulate stock over the Long
term using dollar cost averaging. The DRP is usually administered by the company without charges to the
holder.


Dividend yield (Funds)

Indicated yield represents return on a share of a mutual fund held over the past 12
months. Assumes fund was purchased 1 year ago. Reflects effect of sales charges (at current rates), but not
redemption charges.


dumping

selling products abroad at lower prices than those
charged in the home country or in other national markets


EBIT

Earnings before interest and taxes. The measure often is used to gauge coverage of fixed charges.


Economic Value Added (EVA)

Operating profit, adjusted to remove distortions caused by certain accounting rules, less a charge
to cover the cost of capital invested in the business.


Expensed

charged to an expense account, fully reducing reported profit of that year, as is appropriate for
expenditures for items with useful lives under one year.


Federal funds rate

This is the interest rate that banks with excess reserves at a Federal Reserve district bank
charge other banks that need overnight loans. The Fed Funds rate, as it is called, often points to the direction
of U.S. interest rates.


Fee

A charge for services.


Impairment Loss

A special, nonrecurring charge taken to write down an asset with an overstated
book value. Generally an asset is considered to be value-impaired when its book value
exceeds the future net cash flows expected to be received from its use. An impairment write-down
reduces an overstated book value to fair value.


Interac system

Canada's bank machine and electronic debit system. If you use your bank card at a bank machine which displays the Interac symbol (and that bank machine is not your bank's machine), you will be charged a fee.


Interest

A charge for the use of money supplied by a lender.


Interest Rate

Rate charged or paid for the use of money, normally expressed as a percentage


Legal defeasance

The deposit of cash and permitted securities, as specified in the bond indenture, into an
irrevocable trust sufficient to enable the issuer to discharge fully its obligations under the bond indenture.


Leverage ratios

Measures of the relative contribution of stockholders and creditors, and of the firm's ability
to pay financing charges. Value of firm's debt to the total value of the firm.


LIBOR

The London Interbank Offered Rate; the rate of interest that major international banks in London
charge each other for borrowings. Many variable interest rates in the U.S. are based on spreads off of LIBOR.
There are many different LIBOR tenors.


Load fund

A mutual fund with shares sold at a price including a large sales charge -- typically 4% to 8% of
the net amount indicated. Some "no-load" funds have distribution fees permitted by article 12b-1 of the
Investment Company Act; these are typically 0. 25%. A "true no-load" fund has neither a sales charge nor
Freddie Mac program, the aggregation that the fund purchaser receives some investment advice or other
service worthy of the charge.


loads

Loads are sales fees (or commissions) that are charged when you buy a mutual fund.


Management fee

An investment advisory fee charged by the financial advisor to a fund based on the fund's
average assets, but sometimes determined on a sliding scale that declines as the dollar amount of the fund increases.


Membership

or a seat on the exchange A limited number of exchange positions that enable the holder to
trade for the holder's own accounts and charge clients for the execution of trades for their accounts.


Mutual fund

Mutual funds are pools of money that are managed by an investment company. They offer
investors a variety of goals, depending on the fund and its investment charter. Some funds, for example, seek
to generate income on a regular basis. Others seek to preserve an investor's money. Still others seek to invest
in companies that are growing at a rapid pace. Funds can impose a sales charge, or load, on investors when
they buy or sell shares. Many funds these days are no load and impose no sales charge. Mutual funds are
investment companies regulated by the Investment Company Act of 1940.
Related: open-end fund, closed-end fund.


negotiated transfer price

an intracompany charge for goods
or services set through a process of negotiation between
the selling and purchasing unit managers


Net asset value (NAV)

The value of a fund's investments. For a mutual fund, the net asset value per share
usually represents the fund's market price, subject to a possible sales or redemption charge. For a closed end
fund, the market price may vary significantly from the net asset value.


No load mutual fund

An open-end investment company, shares of which are sold without a sales charge.
There can be other distribution charges, however, such as Article 12B-1 fees. A true "no load" fund will have
neither a sales charge nor a distribution fee.


Normalizing method

The practice of making a charge in the income account equivalent to the tax savings
realized through the use of different depreciation methods for shareholder and income tax purposes, thus
washing out the benefits of the tax savings reported as final net income to shareholders.


NSF (non-sufficient funds)

This appears on your statement if there are insufficient funds in your account to cover a cheque that you have written or a pre-authorized payment that you have already arranged. You will be charged a service fee for non-sufficient funds.


operating leverage

A relatively small percent increase or decrease in
sales volume that causes a much larger percent increase or decrease in
profit because fixed expenses do not change with small changes in sales
volume. Sales volume changes have a lever effect on profit. This effect
should be called sales volume leverage, but in practice it is called operating
leverage.
operating liabilities
The short-term liabilities generated by the operating
(profit-making) activities of a business. Most businesses have three types
of operating liabilities: accounts payable from inventory purchases and
from incurring expenses, accrued expenses payable for unpaid expenses,
and income tax payable. These short-term liabilities of a business are
non-interest-bearing, although if not paid on time a business may be
assessed a late-payment penalty that is in the nature of an interest
charge.


Participation Fee

Fee charged by a bank for taking part in providing a loan.


Payroll Stabilization

This calculation is used by states to determine the unemployment
contribution rate to charge employers and links the contribution rate
to fluctuations in a company’s total payroll over time.


Phone switching

In mutual funds, the ability to transfer shares between funds in the same family by
telephone request. There may be a charge associated with these transfers. Phone switching is also possible
among different fund families if the funds are held in street name by a participating broker/dealer.


PLUS system

A bank machine network outside Canada, across the U.S. and internationally. Customers who use a bank machine with a 'PLUS' symbol may be charged a fee.


Policy Fee

Administrative charge included in a Policy Premium.


Pooling of interests

An method for accounting for a business combination. When used, the expenses of the combination are charged against income at once, and the net
income of the acquired company is added to the full-year reported results of the acquiring company.


predetermined overhead rate

an estimated constant charge per unit of activity used to assign overhead cost to production or services of the period; it is calculated by dividing total budgeted annual overhead at a selected level of volume or activity by that selected measure of volume or activity; it is also the standard overhead application rate


prime rate

Benchmark interest rate charged by banks.


Prime Rate

The interest rate that is charged by the banks to their most credit worthy customers.


prime rate

The rate of interest that Canadian financial institutions charge on Canadian dollar loans to certain customers. It is based on the rate established by the Bank of Canada. Typically, all financial institutions have the same prime rate.


purchasing cost

the quoted price of inventory minus any
discounts allowed plus shipping charges


Refinancing (Credit Insurance)

Extending the maturity date or increasing the amount of existing debt or both. Also, revising a payment schedule, usually to reduce the monthly payments and often to modify interest charges.


Regulatory pricing risk

Risk that arises when regulators restrict the premium rates that insurance companies
can charge.


Reserve Ratio

This calculation is used by states to determine the unemployment contribution rate to charge employers. The ongoing balance of a firm’s unclaimed
contributions from previous years is reduced by unemployment claims for the past year and then divided by the average annual payroll, resulting in a "reserve ratio".


residual income

the profit earned by a responsibility center that exceeds an amount "charged" for funds committed to that center


Senior Debt

Are debt instruments that provide financing, take primary security against either specific or all assets of the borrower, have fixed terms of repayment and charge fixed or floating interest rates.


Soft dollars

The value of research services that brokerage houses supply to investment managers "free of
charge" in exchange for the investment manager's business/commissions.


Special Items

Significant credits or charges resulting from transactions or events that, in the
view of management, are not representative of normal business activities of the period and that
affect comparability of earnings. This term is often used interchangeably with nonrecurring
items.


special order decision

a situation in which management must determine a sales price to charge for manufacturing or service jobs outside the company’s normal production/service market


State Disability Tax

A tax charged by selected states to maintain a disability insurance
fund, from which payments are made to employees who are unable to
work due to illness or injury.


Subordinated Debt

Debt instruments that provide financing for acquisitions, expansion and restructuring, take secondary security against assets, have fixed or flexible terms of repayment and charge fixed or floating interest rates.


Times Interest Earned Ratio

A measure of how well a company is able to meet its interest
payments based on the cash generated by its operations. It is
calculated by dividing the earnings before interest and taxes by the
total interest charges incurred by the firm.


transfer price

an internal charge established for the exchange
of goods or services between organizational units
of the same company



 

 

 

 

 

 

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