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Reinstatement

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Definition of Reinstatement

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Reinstatement

This is the restoration of a lapsed life insurance policy. The life insurance company will require evidence of continuing good health and the payment of all past due premiums plus interest.



Related Terms:

fractional interest discount

the combined discounts for lack of control and marketability. g the constant growth rate in cash flows or net income used in the ADF, Gordon model, or present value factor.


Accrued interest

The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the
buyer (unless the bond is in default).


All equity rate

The discount rate that reflects only the business risks of a project and abstracts from the
effects of financing.


All or none

requirement that none of an order be executed unless all of it can be executed at the specified price.


All-in cost

Total costs, explicit and implicit.



All-or-none underwriting

An arrangement whereby a security issue is canceled if the underwriter is unable
to re-sell the entire issue.


Amortizing interest rate swap

Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates
rise (decline).


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Annuity due

An annuity with n payments, wherein the first payment is made at time t = 0 and the last
payment is made at time t = n - 1.


Asset allocation decision

The decision regarding how an institution's funds should be distributed among the
major classes of assets in which it may invest.


Assets requirements

A common element of a financial plan that describes projected capital spending and the
proposed uses of net working capital.


Average life

Also referred to as the weighted-average life (WAL). The average number of years that each
dollar of unpaid principal due on the mortgage remains outstanding. Average life is computed as the weighted average time to the receipt of all future cash flows, using as the weights the dollar amounts of the principal
paydowns.


Balance of payments

A statistical compilation formulated by a sovereign nation of all economic transactions
between residents of that nation and residents of all other nations during a stipulated period of time, usually a
calendar year.


Balloon maturity

Any large principal payment due at maturity for a bond or loan with or without a a sinking
fund requirement.


Base interest rate

Related: Benchmark interest rate.


Benchmark interest rate

Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will
demand for investing in a non-Treasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a
comparable-maturity Treasury security that was most recently issued ("on-the-run").


Best-interests-of-creditors test

The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization
must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.


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Blue-chip company

Large and creditworthy company.


Borrower fallout

In the mortgage pipeline, the risk that prospective borrowers of loans committed to be
closed will elect to withdraw from the contract.



Break-even lease payment

The lease payment at which a party to a prospective lease is indifferent between
entering and not entering into the lease arrangement.


Break-even payment rate

The prepayment rate of a MBS coupon that will produce the same CFY as that of
a predetermined benchmark MBS coupon. Used to identify for coupons higher than the benchmark coupon
the prepayment rate that will produce the same CFY as that of the benchmark coupon; and for coupons lower
than the benchmark coupon the lowest prepayment rate that will do so.


Call

An option that gives the right to buy the underlying futures contract.


Call an option

To exercise a call option.


Call date

A date before maturity, specified at issuance, when the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond
for a specified call price.


Call money rate

Also called the broker loan rate , the interest rate that banks charge brokers to finance
margin loans to investors. The broker charges the investor the call money rate plus a service charge.


Call option

An option contract that gives its holder the right (but not the obligation) to purchase a specified
number of shares of the underlying stock at the given strike price, on or before the expiration date of the
contract.
Call premium
Premium in price above the par value of a bond or share of preferred stock that must be paid to
holders to redeem the bond or share of preferred stock before its scheduled maturity date.


Call price

The price, specified at issuance, at which the issuer of a bond may retire part of the bond at a
specified call date.


Call price

The price for which a bond can be repaid before maturity under a call provision.


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Call protection

A feature of some callable bonds that establishes an initial period when the bonds may not be
called.



Call provision

An embedded option granting a bond issuer the right to buy back all or part of the issue prior
to maturity.


Call risk

The combination of cash flow uncertainty and reinvestment risk introduced by a call provision.


Call swaption

A swaption in which the buyer has the right to enter into a swap as a fixed-rate payer. The
writer therefore becomes the fixed-rate receiver/floating rate payer.


Callable

A financial security such as a bond with a call option attached to it, i.e., the issuer has the right to
call the security.


Capital allocation

decision allocation of invested funds between risk-free assets versus the risky portfolio.


Capital surplus

Amounts of directly contributed equity capital in excess of the par value.


Capitalized interest

interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then
amortized through the income statement over time.


Cash flow after interest and taxes

Net income plus depreciation.


Chinese wall

Communication barrier between financiers (investment bankers) and traders. This barrier is
erected to prevent the sharing of inside information that bankers are likely to have.


Clearing House Automated Payments System (CHAPS)

A computerized clearing system for sterling funds
that began operations in 1984. It includes 14 member banks, nearly 450 participating banks, and is one of the
clearing companies within the structure of the Association for payment Clearing Services (APACS).


Clearing House Interbank Payments System (CHIPS)

An international wire transfer system for high-value
payments operated by a group of major banks.


Coinsurance effect

Refers to the fact that the merger of two firms decreases the probability of default on
either firm's debt.


Collection policy

Procedures followed by a firm in attempting to collect accounts receivables.


Company-specific risk

Related: Unsystematic risk


Compound interest

interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal.


Comprehensive due diligence investigation

The investigation of a firm's business in conjunction with a
securities offering to determine whether the firm's business and financial situation and its prospects are
adequately disclosed in the prospectus for the offering.


Cost company arrangement

Arrangement whereby the shareholders of a project receive output free of
charge but agree to pay all operating and financing charges of the project.


Coupon payments

A bond's interest payments.


Covered call

A short call option position in which the writer owns the number of shares of the underlying
stock represented by the option contracts. Covered calls generally limit the risk the writer takes because the
stock does not have to be bought at the market price, if the holder of that option decides to exercise it.


Covered call writing strategy

A strategy that involves writing a call option on securities that the investor
owns in his or her portfolio. See covered or hedge option strategies.


Covered interest arbitrage

A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign
currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for
dollars.


Date of payment

Date dividend checks are mailed.


Deferred call

A provision that prohibits the company from calling the bond before a certain date. During This
period the bond is said to be call protected.


Deferred nominal life annuity

A monthly fixed-dollar payment beginning at retirement age. It is nominal
because the payment is fixed in dollar amount at any particular time, up to and including retirement.


Delivery versus payment

A transaction in which the buyer's payment for securities is due at the time of
delivery (usually to a bank acting as agent for the buyer) upon receipt of the securities. The payment may be
made by bank wire, check, or direct credit to an account.


Depository Trust Company (DTC)

DTC is a user-owned securities depository which accepts deposits of
eligible securities for custody, executes book-entry deliveries and records book-entry pledges of securities in
its custody, and provides for withdrawals of securities from its custody.


Dividend policy

An established guide for the firm to determine the amount of money it will pay as dividends.


Due bill

An instrument evidencing the obligation of a seller to deliver securities sold to the buyer.
Occasionally used in the bill market.


Dynamic asset allocation

An asset allocation strategy in which the asset mix is mechanistically shifted in
response to -changing market conditions, as in a portfolio insurance strategy, for example.


Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)

A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold
and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and non-operating profit before
the deduction of interest and income taxes.


Economic surplus

For any entity, the difference between the market value of all its assets and the market
value of its liabilities.


Effective annual interest rate

An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of
compounding.


Effective call price

The strike price in an optional redemption provision plus the accrued interest to the
redemption date.


Equilibrium rate of interest

The interest rate that clears the market. Also called the market-clearing interest
rate.


Fallout risk

A type of mortgage pipeline risk that is generally created when the terms of the loan to be
originated are set at the same time as the sale terms are set. The risk is that either of the two parties, borrower
or investor, fails to close and the loan "falls out" of the pipeline.


Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

A federal institution that insures bank deposits.


Federally related institutions

Arms of the federal government that are exempt from SEC registration and
whose securities are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government (with the exception of the
Tennessee Valley Authority).


FHA prepayment experience

The percentage of loans in a pool of mortgages outstanding at the origination
anniversary, based on annual statistical historic survival rates for FHA-insured mortgages.


First-call

With CMOs, the start of the cash flow cycle for the cash flow window.


Fiscal policy

The use of government spending and taxing for the specific purpose of stabilizing the economy.


Forward interest rate

interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.


Generally Accepted Accounting Principals (GAAP)

A technical accounting term that encompasses the
conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practice at a particular time.


Glass-Steagall Act

A 1933 act in which Congress forbade commercial banks to own, underwrite, or deal in
corporate stock and corporate bonds.


Good delivery

A delivery in which everything - endorsement, any necessary attached legal papers, etc. - is in
order.


Good delivery and settlement procedures

Refers to PSA Uniform Practices such as cutoff times on delivery
of securities and notification, allocation, and proper endorsement.


Good 'til canceled

Sometimes simply called "GTC", it means an order to buy or sell stock that is good until
you cancel it. Brokerages usually set a limit of 30-60 days, at which the GTC expires if not restated.


Goodwill

Excess of the purchase price over the fair market value of the net assets acquired under purchase
accounting.


Graduated-payment mortgages (GPMs)

A type of stepped-payment loan in which the borrower's payments
are initially lower than those on a comparable level-rate mortgage. The payments are gradually increased over
a predetermined period (usually 3,5, or 7 years) and then are fixed at a level-pay schedule which will be
higher than the level-pay amortization of a level-pay mortgage originated at the same time. The difference
between what the borrower actually pays and the amount required to fully amortize the mortgage is added to
the unpaid principal balance.


Gross interest

interest earned before taxes are deducted.


Guaranteed insurance contract

A contract promising a stated nominal interest rate over some specific time
period, usually several years.


Holding company

A corporation that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and
operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.


Implied call

The right of the homeowner to prepay, or call, the mortgage at any time.


Initial margin requirement

When buying securities on margin, the proportion of the total market value of
the securities that the investor must pay for in cash. The Security Exchange Act of 1934 gives the board of
governors of the Federal Reserve the responsibility to set initial margin requirements, but individual
brokerage firms are free to set higher requirements. In futures contracts, initial margin requirements are set by
the exchange.


Installment sale

The sale of an asset in exchange for a specified series of payments (the installments).


Insurance principle

The law of averages. The average outcome for many independent trials of an experiment
will approach the expected value of the experiment.


Intercompany loan

Loan made by one unit of a corporation to another unit of the same corporation.


Intercompany transaction

Transaction carried out between two units of the same corporation.


Interest

The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time and
reflects the rate of exchange of present consumption for future consumption. Also, a share or title in property.


Interest coverage ratio

The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This
ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.


Interest coverage test

A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional long-term debt if the issuer's
interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum.


Interest equalization tax

Tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.


Interest payments

Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount.


Interest on interest

interest earned on reinvestment of each interest payment on money invested.
See: compound interest.


Interest-only strip (IO)

A security based solely on the interest payments form a pool of mortgages, Treasury
bonds, or other bonds. Once the principal on the mortgages or bonds has been repaid, interest payments stop
and the value of the IO falls to zero.


Interest rate agreement

An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the
other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined
level (the strike rate).


Interest rate cap

Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made
when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.


Interest rate ceiling

Related: interest rate cap.


Interest rate floor

An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls
below the strike rate.


Interest rate on debt

The firm's cost of debt capital.


Interest rate parity theorem

interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference
between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.


Interest rate risk

The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a
bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that
spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.


Interest rate swap

A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on
some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party
will pay fixed and receive variable.



 

 

 

 

 

 

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